Saturday, December 28, 2019

Comparison between Two Political Thinkers and and their...

Political theories have been collected throughout history, and often shine light and cause debate surrounding the positions of common socio-political themes and topics. When studying political theory, it is important to recognize the philosopher behind the written work, and comprehend why they reflect the political beliefs that they do. This paper will compare and contrast two of the most noted and influential political thinkers and their understanding of private property. The first theory is found within the work of English philosopher John Locke. Locke strongly supported the concept of private property, and believed that the only reason society falls upon armed conflict and warfare is because of a general lack of the essential†¦show more content†¦Whatsoever then he removed out of the state of nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property† (Locke, 19). For Locke, labor’s most valuable function is that it does more than simply define a division between what is considered private and what is considered public. He feels it is labor that creates value and turns something that was fundamentally worthless at one time into something of worth. For example, Locke presents the opinion that land without labor put into it is â€Å"scarcely worth anything.† Locke viewed the world as a place of opportunity that had been given to us for our persona benefit, but more importantly viewed private property as a fun damental practice to shape a structured political society. Government and rule, Locke believed, is a trust taken by an individual. The purpose of that trust is to secure the protection of that individual’s person and property, and, perhaps most importantly, that individual has the right to withdraw his or her support in the ruling government when the government fails in it’s task and does not keep the good of the people in mind. In a state of nature there is no way for each individual to ensure that his or her property would remain safe from anyone else. In Locke’s theory, he did not believe a democracy was the only valid system of government, and had no problem with aShow MoreRelatedThe Main Points Of Argumentation Applied By Karl Marx And Georg Lukacs2896 Words   |  12 PagesIn this essay, I will reconstruct the main points of argumentation applied by both Karl Marx and Georg Lukacs in two of their well-known works, Estranged Labor and History and Class Consciousness. I will compare the two with one another in or der to develop a comprehensive overview of the difficult and complex relationship between alienation, production, the commodity structure, the ideological applications of the capitalist system and the way in which they are extended into every facet of real lifeRead More Locke On Distribution Essay3207 Words   |  13 Pagesliterature on the Two Treatises of Government was more famous (or infamousÉdepending on who you talk to), widely debated, or caused more controversy than the old Oxford gradÕs theory of property. Some are shouting from the left that Locke argues a rights claim for subsistence for all individuals, that it may even support MarxÕs theory of exploitation. Yelling back are those from the right who claim that he formulates a moral justification for capitalist appropriation of property. Then of course thereRead MoreBriefly Explain What Is Meant by the â€Å"Scientific Revolution† That Took Place in Seventeenth Century Europe, and How It Marked a Departure from Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.1603 Words   |  7 Pagesthat time period these people changed the viewpoint of our universe from geocentric (the earth at the center) to heliocentric (the sun at the center). Kepler came up with the laws, which explains the orbits, and Newton was able to come up with an understanding of gravity. He developed laws and new ideas, which could describe every facet of gravity in the universe. This was completely new and very revolutionary. It is considered the start of the modern science age. A great many other men lived and contributedRead MoreMarx vs. Weber: a Comparative Analysis1965 Words   |  8 Pagesbiography and the relationship between the two within society. (Mills, 12) In other words both theorists were de aling with the individual and society not either one to the exclusion of the other. Mills further writes that both Marx and Weber are in that tradition of sociological theorizing that leans towards sociology as a theory of history,(Mills, 30) sociology as (in this tradition) an encyclopedic endeavour, concerned with the whole of man s social life. Thus these two giants of sociology have aRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Justice Essay2336 Words   |  10 Pagesand conduct of war and standards that define the most basic human rights.1 Two central perspectives of traditional political theory of justice was formulated by Thomas Hobbes and John Rawls. The first one considered the political concept of justice in comparison with the issue of sovereignty, whereas the second one pursed an important study about justice and equality. According with Thomas Hobbes, justice is a property of relations among human beings requires government as an enabling condition:Read MoreJurisprudence: Marxism3961 Words   |  16 Pagesfirst scientific socialist thinker. His socialism was based upon an understanding of the ‘real’ material economic facts. The socialist thinkers who preceded Marx have been designated as ‘Utopians’. There were a number of socialist thinkers before Marx. Although Marxism cannot be reduced to a mere compilation or synthesis of Utopian ideas, there is little doubt that they played an important part in the formation of Marx’s system. There were important differences between the sci entific socialism ofRead MorePolitical Philosophy and Plato Essay9254 Words   |  38 Pagesstrongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. To illustrate the use of the Socratic method; a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefsRead MoreJurisprudential Theories on IPR13115 Words   |  53 Pages[32]  Although the relationship between intellectual property and  human rights  is a complex one,[33]  there are moral arguments for intellectual property. The arguments that justify intellectual property fall into three major categories. Personality theorists believe intellectual property is an extension of an individual. Utilitarians believe that intellectual property stimulates social progress and pushes people to further innovation. Lockeans argue that intellectual property is justified based on deservednessRead MoreSystems Thinking2595 Words   |  11 Pageslearns and defines it processes and substructures, maintaining interconnected relationships, cultures and behaviours. During its march towards a modern, innovative organisation the LGA becomes embroiled in a cauldron of games which have strategic, political, autonomic outcomes. To some extent power and conflict goes hand in hand with these games as the departments jostle for advantage (survival of the fittest) as noted in paragraph 5, appendix 1. However at the top of the tree the leadership teams appearRead MoreFreedom of Speech, Comparing Freedom of Expression in the Statutory Law and the Sharia Law19992 Words   |  80 Pages15 centuries old, this gives it a historical background. Sharia (Ã… ¡arÄ «ÃŠ ¿ah) is all religious rituals that Allah (SWT) has imposed on Muslims, via his Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) regarding beliefs, rules and day-to-day life among Muslims themselves, and between Muslims and non-Muslims. It is â€Å"designed to govern the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims, whether inside or outside the territory of Islam.† Mahmoud Kamali says that Sharia is â€Å"the Islamic law as contained in the divine guidance of the Qur’an

Friday, December 20, 2019

Business Opportunities - 14520 Words

I did not write this essay: The Sources of Entrepreneurial Opportunities: Individuals the Environment Doctoral Research Paper 2 of 5 Nikolina Fuduric Doctoral Supervisor: Professor Anne Lorentzen February 2008 Department of Planning and Development Aalborg University Aalborg, Denmark 1.0 INTRODUCTION No extensive empirical study on the sources of entrepreneurial opportunities included the individual, the environment and the individual’s start-up activities in a post-socialist periphery. However, such layered approaches have been encouraged in theoretical studies of entrepreneurship. Bouchikhi (1993) claims that each approach taken†¦show more content†¦The second reason could be because it is generally assumed that Kirznerian entrepreneurship is more mundane and offers less value to society (from a macro-economic but not from a development perspective). As a field, we do not have a clear understanding of the Kirznerian entrepreneur’s opportunity sources, his value to different levels of society and what interventions are needed to encourage this form of entrepreneurship even though it is the most common form practiced. Why encourage a non-innovative, mundane form of entrepreneurship? The answer lies in the fact that a simpler, less resource intensive form of entrepreneurship has the ability to manifest in economically stagnating peripheral regions. Entrepreneurship in these areas of the world is often the only source of economic and social meaning available to the marginalized or the poor. Based on what has been discussed in the previous paragraphs, this paper has four goals. The first is to offer a literature review on the sources of opportunities in the entrepreneurship process. The literature review shows that the theoretical and empirical contributions are quite fragmented and in need of a framework. The second goal is to explore the generally accepted view in the field that entrepreneurs can be described from a Schumpeterian or Kirznerian perspective. I propose that one entrepreneur has the opportunity to be both depending onShow MoreRelatedCase Study : The Business Opportunity1503 Words   |  7 PagesThe business opportunity There are various brands of makeup, it is impossible for consumers to have a fair knowledge over all brands. It is not always guaranteed that famous brand would suit all sorts of consumers definitely. Therefore, consumers often have difficulty in choosing the suitable makeup from a wide variety range of makeup. With the traditional shopping way,for example, salesperson in David Jones usually give suggestions to the customer for which kind of makeup is better. Sometimes, customersRead MoreMarketing Opportunities For Business Growth2296 Words   |  10 Pages2. Based on your answers above, you should rank each of the marketing opportunities that you have identified from most viable to least viable and in terms of the contribution of each opportunity to business growth. You should provide reasons for your rankings. Marketing opportunities Ranking Reasons for rankings Marketing opportunity 1: Joint ventures viable Joint ventures means that each party taking part in forming it would contribute their respective share to the new ventures, be that financialRead MoreFamily Business: Challanges and Opportunities2686 Words   |  11 Pages1. INTRODUCTION A family business is an enterprise owned, managed, and operated by members of one or several families. Many companies, which were established as family businesses, are now publicly held. Numerous family businesses have non-family members as workforce, but, predominantly in smaller companies, the top positions are frequently allocated to family members. Family partaking in a business can reinforce the business because family members are very reliable and devoted to the family enterpriseRead MoreIdentifying Opportunities From The Leeds School Of Business1176 Words   |  5 Pages Identifying opportunities available to you I am planning on pursuing a minor in Business from the Leeds school of business. This minor is attractive to me because companies want engineers with an understanding of how they fit into the company as a whole, and a minor in business can help with this. In addition to this, the business minor takes the rigorous engineering courses that engineers must take into account, and, as a result, they have distilled the entire minor down to just 4 courses andRead MoreHow internal and external influences may impact on business opportunities in NSW. Business600 Words   |  3 Pagesinternal and external influences may impact on business opportunities in NSW. Business opportunities in New South Wales are impacted by internal and external influences, external influence being competitive sitiaution being most common, technological, insitiutional, political, legal, markets, economic, finacial, geographical and social having little or no control over and internal influences being location, products, resources, management, business culture being mostly or all contorl over. As weRead MoreEqual Employment Opportunity Law Small Business1211 Words   |  5 PagesEqual Employment Opportunity Law Small Business The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a â€Å"five-member body appointed by the President to establish equal employment opportunity policy under the laws it administers† (p. 827, Twomey Jennings, 2014). The EEOC is â€Å"responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person s race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older)Read MoreBusiness Opportunities : Business Opportunity2237 Words   |  9 PagesBusiness opportunity The opportunity to create any business somehow is very much hard because of the modern world competition which has created nuisance in every market in the world. But there are several other opportunities which needed to be cashed in for any business to be the leader of the market. Today we see many opportunities in many fields and this only talk’s business opportunity (Grayson and Hodges,2001). A business opportunity involves selling of any product or giving product to anyRead MoreBusiness Opportunity For Business Opportunities1954 Words   |  8 PagesBusiness opportunity The opportunity to create any business somehow is very much hard because of the modern world competition which has created nuisance in every market in the world. But there are several other opportunities which needed tube cashed in for any business man to be the leader of the market. Today we see many opportunities in many feels and this only talks business opportunity. A business opportunity involves selling of any product or giving product to any one on lease so that it canRead MoreE-Commerce - A World of Opportunities for the Small Business Owner1666 Words   |  7 PagesE-commerce is one of the grandest trademarks of the 21st century. By allowing anyone with a credit card to purchase any product - at any time - at the click of a mouse, e-commerce has opened a world full of opportunities for the small business owner and the shopaholic. But e-commerce is not without its apparent flaws. It has the advantage of speed, a variety of products, and a great start up for e-commerce businesses, but product quality, bad businesses, and hackers are its main foibles. â€Æ' WhenRead MoreMarketing Opportunities For Business Opportunities Essay1634 Words   |  7 Pagesb) Target customers. Marketing opportunities Target customers Marketing opportunity 1: exporting Exporting is selling your products oversea and the target will be the oversea customers and businesses or retail sellers who are selling clothes and accessory. Exporting will also create the connection with oversea company and that will be benefits for future business activity. Marketing opportunity 2: online business opportunities Online marketing will target the group of people who is normally purchasing

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Mallarme(Poet) Essay Example For Students

Mallarme(Poet) Essay St?phane Mallarm?St?phane Mallarm?, a French poet, became one of the most important masters of French symbolism, a nineteenth-century movement in poetry that stressed impressions and moods rather than descriptions of reality (Online). The poetry of Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, and others strongly affected Mallarm?s writing (Online). He used symbolism to represent human emotions to make his poems unclear, thus avoiding direct communication with his readers (Online ; World Book 110,111). Mallarm? was born in Paris on March 18, 1842 (Online). After his mother died when he was seven years old, his grandmother became his parental role model. His education included upper-class boarding schools where he often felt out of place because of his middle class background. When he was fifteen, the death of his younger sister, Maria, greatly influenced his poetic development. He turned from Romantic lyricism to much more morbid subjects like Baudelaires Les fleurs du mal. In 1 860, he received his baccalaureate degree from a ?lycee? in Sens. After an apprenticeship in the Registrys office, in 1862 he had his first sonnet published in Le papillon, a literary journal. In 1862 Mallarm? married Maria Gerhard and became a teacher in Tournon. The difficult duties of teaching often interrupted his poetic work and thoughts. Although his students made fun of him, Mallarm? was not discouraged and continued his writing. After translating Edgar Allan Poes English poems into French, Mallarm?s chief influence became Poe rather than Baudelaire. He began to compose long imaginative poems and a prose poem called Herodiade, the biblical story of Salome who caused John the Baptists murder. Then he wrote his best-known poem LApr?s-midi dun faune (Afternoon of a Faun), which explores the difference between reality and fantasy (World Book 110,111). After moving to Paris in 1875 and becoming a teacher at College Rollin, Mallarm? began to associate with such famous French poets as Theodore de Banville, Paul Verlaine, and Gustave Kahn (Online). These and others visited him on Tuesday evenings (les mardis), and these poets became known as les mardistes. Mallarm? spoke about using words as symbols and was considered an oracle. He became known as the ?Master of Symbolism? because of the great effect he had on the poets of his age. To honor his colleagues, he later wrote Toast funebre and ?Le tombeau dEdgar Poe? (?The Tomb of Edgar Poe?), a poem telling of Poes ?eternal genius? despite his sad life. This poem is one of the most often quoted poems in French literature. In 1869, Mallarm? started but did not complete Igitur: ou, la folie dElbehnon, twelve prose fragments of different lengths (Online). Classified as a story, a prose poem, and a drama, Igitur did not appeal to feelings but to the intelligence of the reader. It shows his lifelong preoccupation with death, infinity, fantasy, and absence. Despite Mallarm?s requests to dispose of his Igitur notes at his death, his son-in-law, Dr. Bonninot, tried to reorganize the prose fragments and published them in 1925. In his final work Un coup de des jamais nabolira le hasard (A Throw of the Dice Never Will Abolish Chance), Mallarm? showed his interest in musical verse form and set his words in different typefaces to illustrate visually the subject of the poem and to stress the unity of thought and sound. Mallarm? thought that one should not change or paraphrase the language of a poem (Americana 143). He believed that sacred things are surrounded in mystery and that poetry has secrets that should be protected, just as religion does. According to Mallarm?, poetry is not like music because the latter cannot be understood by all. To this poet, the silences in a poem are just as important as the words. He also thought that the reason for writing poetry is the creation of poetic language; therefore, poetry itself is the subject of all poems. .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .postImageUrl , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:hover , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:visited , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:active { border:0!important; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:active , .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ucd291a920800ac138135c2a3954d3f2f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Young Thomas Edison EssayAlthough Mallarm? tried to develop a ?Grand Oeuvre,? he spent so much time and energy thinking about the true nature of poetry that he was unable to write this work (Online). He sometimes suffered from depression and lack of creativity due to his changing poetic intentions, his dislike for instant pleasure in literature, and his insistence that the reader himself search for the symbolic meaning in poetry. His most important contribution is to the Symbolist Movement and modern poetry, for it shows his feeling that what can not be explained in poetry is able to be understood through exact symbolic language. St?phane Mallarm? has had great influence on twentieth century poetry, although his own poetry is limited (Colliers). His attitudes, theories, and the wholeness of his personality have greatly influenced many modern day poets. On September 9, 1898, St?phane Mallarm? died at Valvins. ?Toute l?me r?sum?e ? is a poem written by St?phane Mallarm? and published in 1895. This poems central idea is to value and appreciate those qualities or things that are constant, not those that drift away and change like the smoke of a cigar. These lines: ?Exclus-en si tu commences Le r?el parce que vil Le sens trop pr?cis rature Ta vague litt?rature? illustrate that Mallarm? develops the theme well because of the vagueness and ones inability to completely understand the soul. The soul is something indescribable by ordinary words and language; thus Mallarm?, the master of Symbolism, uses highly symbolic language throughout the poem. Mallarm? successfully creates the poems mood, one of reflectiveness, pensiveness, and spiritually through the sensory images of fire, ashes, and smoke. This line: ?Toute l?me r?sum?e? and the reference to the soul cause one to contemplate while ?quelque cigare br?lant? and the reference to the cigar remind one of a peaceful and tranquil atmosphere associated with a relaxing smoke. St?phane Mallarm? uses examples of metaphors and symbolism to create the meaning of the poem. ?Quand lente nous lexpirons (l?me) dans plusieurs ronds de fum?e abolis en autres ronds? is an extended metaphor; when Mallarm? says that we exhale the soul, he actually means the living of ones life. The rounds of smoke come and go abolished in other rounds; Mallarm? suggests through this line the importance of each day because of the shortness of life. ?Que la cendre se s?pare? shows the symbolism of ashes representing the body after death. Just as ashes are left behind after the smoke of a fire, so is the body left behind after the soul departs. Mallarm? uses an implied metaphor of smoke representing the soul which is exhaled in smoke rings. As smoke rings can change, so can the soul change. The withdrawal of the ashes is another implied metaphor of the death of someone. The final use of symbolism is ?De son clair baiser de feu.? The kiss of fire is represented as eternal life and life at the beginning when both the body and soul are united. The fuming cigar also is like Mallarm?s writing style in which ?each word becomes alight, burns, and transmits the fire? (Chiari 143) as each word flows into the next. This lyric poem is a sonnet consisting of four stanzas (4,4,4,2) and fourteen lines. Written in meter verse with seven syllables per line, the rhyme scheme is ?rime Crois?e? (abab, cdcd, efef, gg). Mallarm?s concrete words include ?ronds de fum?e, cigare, la cendre, et de feu? while his positive connotative words consist of ?l?me et le ch?ur des romances.? Mallarm? writes ?Toute l?me r?sum?e concisely using suggestive, rather than clear images. ?Toute l?me r?sum?e is difficult to understand and must be carefully re-read time and time again. St?phane Mallarm? forces his readers to interpret his vague poems, such as this one, which is full of unclear symbolism. This poem makes the reader ponder about the evolution of the soul. The poem is good and lasting because of its meaning which is to take advantage of what is here now. .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .postImageUrl , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:hover , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:visited , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:active { border:0!important; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:active , .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716 .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5c5f70f85e253a5de2ab07f1a112d716:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Radar: A Silent Eye in the Sky EssayBibliographyChiari, Joseph. Symbolism from Poe to Mallarm?. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1956, p.143. ?Mallarm?, St?phane.? Colliers Encyclopedia. Volume 15. ?Mallarm?, St?phane.? Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 18. pp. 177-178. ?Mallarm?, St?phane.? The World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 13, pp. 110-111. Online. Internet. March 17, 1999.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Cormac Mccarthy free essay sample

McCarthy could be labeling the characters ‘the man ‘and ‘the boy’ to show the effects on mankind after this catastrophe. By labeling them ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’, it could be that McCarthy is trying to universalize his characters, showing how much of a change there has been in the novel after the tragedy which has transformed the earth. McCarthy has been very vague about the form and setting, from the opening pages, the reader still does not have a clear understanding of where exactly the novel is set or where ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’ are going. The month/date has not been clarified either as the narrative voice says ‘it could have been October’. The narrative voice talks about ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’ going south. Also the narrative mentions a ‘gas’ station and McCarthy has used a different spelling of particular words (gray instead of grey) which gives the hint that the novel is set in America. We will write a custom essay sample on Cormac Mccarthy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page From the beginning, the reader can gather a different sense of language, structure and form, then from a regular novel. Cormac McCarthy uses structure to set up his novel to reader, irregularly. From the opening pages, there are no chapters or speech directions. As we read on we learn that McCarthy has created a setting of a post-apocalyptic world. McCarthy may have done this to suggest a link between structure and setting. By not including punctuation and other structures such as chapters, Cormac McCarthy creates a narrative that is starkly bare, stripped to nothingness like the novels setting. By doing this, McCarthy is completely stripping the book, which engages the reader more than just the bleak description. From the opening pages, McCarthy has used a 3rd person narrative and nameless characters, which has kept the opening passage extremely vague. It is strange that in this post-apocalyptic world, where it is interpreted by the reader, to have a sense of emptiness, McCarthy has used a 3rd person narrative with a single point of view. Almost as if someone is watching everything whilst it is happening. McCarthy could be doing this to add suspense, as he later talks about ‘the man’ carrying a pistol and also has a motorcycle wing mirror attached to his shopping cart. Understanding that ‘the man’ is almost expecting something or someone to approach him, added to the fact there is a 3rd person narrative with a single point of view adds suspense and curiosity to the novel. To bring the setting to life, McCarthy uses effective language and tone to engage the reader and create an image in the head of the reader, of what the world is like for ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’. McCarthy combines the harsh reality of the post-apocalyptic world, with a tender father and son relationship. McCarthy uses symbolic language to describe the atmosphere, by associating The Road and its surroundings with the color such as ‘grey’, which is linked with negativity and dullness. McCarthy could be doing this to suggest that there is not much hope left, by linking ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’s’ surroundings with the color grey, it shows that there is not a kindle of hope. McCarthy has not introduced any characters other than ‘the man’ and ‘the boy’, but he describes to different groups whilst describing The Road, ‘Bloodcults’ and ‘Road Agent’. McCarthy uses the word ‘Bloodcult’ instead of cannibals. Cult meaning a group whose beliefs are considered abnormal or bizarre, but the people within the cult do not believe what they are doing is wrong. Cannibalism is a negative term, but due to the extreme changed that has happened to the world in The Road, McCarthy has combined the two words ‘blood’ and ‘cults’, to show that the world has undergone such a great change, that even one of the worst things that one human could do to another, are considered as normal. McCarthy also uses the words Road Agent’ instead of highwayman, which is someone that holds up travelers at gunpoint in order to rob them, which links to The Road as people will be travelling. McCarthy might have used the words ‘Road Agent’ and ‘Bloodcults’, to show that this post-apocolyptic world has no law or expectations of society, everything/everyone is no different, and whatever actions take place are acceptable, not because people choose to, but because they have no choice, but to rob or result to cannibalism to survive.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Shakeema White Essays - Medicine, Kidney Diseases, Urology

Shakeema White Laboratory Techniques 1. MED115 Spring Semester Dr. Jeffery Rose Renal Ptosis Introduction: Renal Ptosis (nephroptosis), also known as floating kidneys is an abnormal condition of the kidneys when a person is in an upright standing position or lies flat, the kidneys drops down into the pelvic region of the body. Most of the body organs moves when a person changes positions, however, the kidney does not move much. The kidneys is normally held in the lumbar region. This condition is a very rare condition and is most common in women than in men. Many may be affected with this rare condition and not even know it. Etiology: The ca use of renal ptosis is unknown, however, this conditions is mostly found in white women with lack of perirenal fat and facial support. Many studies have shown that 20% of women are diagnosed with this rare condition and is most common in the right kidney. Estimating at 70% reported cases being the right kidney. People with this condition have longer torso than a normal human being. The reason for this, is to allow the kidneys to be displaced and dropped down into the pelvic region. Risk Factors: One of the major risk factors in having renal ptosis, you will have rapid weight loss. Your body would not be able to increase any muscle tone in the abdominal wall. In this case the body would not be able to have muscle growth to protect the other body organs for any other diseases. When women undergo a pregnancy and childbirth, during the gestation period the women's abdominal wall and muscles becomes weak with makes changes in the body causing the women to become more susceptible to having renal ptosis. Signs and Symptoms : Most common symptoms are i ndigestion, belching, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, abdominal distension pain, low back pain with kidney percussion . There are other symptoms that may follow such as urinary symptoms and also digestives symptoms. However, lower back pain accounted for 92%, more than 50% of patients with chronic urinary tract infection symptoms, most of urinary frequency, urgency and other symptoms of bladder irritation. 1/3 of the cases also accompanied by fever or a history of recurrent fever. Occasional lower extremity edema and other symptoms. Diagnosis : Can make a preliminary diagnosis based on a complete medical history and physical examination, physical examination should be palpable and kidney, the kidney is usually easy to touch down, when palpation difficult, so that patients can be up and down a few stairs, and then orthostatic palpation, helps palpable kidneys, upright and recumbent IVP and B-can further confirm the diagnosis. Diagnostic criteria: patients can be symptoms, signs, X-ray inspection of the degree of renal ptosis together to make a judgment. Mild: typical symptoms of back pain, no palpable or just hit lower pole renal, and some patients have kidney area percussion pain, intravenous urography in the renal activity of a vertebral body, ultrasound examination of renal activity is 3cm Sometimes there are hematuria (mostly microscopic) or urinary tract infection complications. Moderate: There are clear symptoms of back pain symptoms associated with digestive and nervous functional aspects palpable kidney, renal angiography activity within two vertebrae, the ultrasound has three activity between 6cm , mostly Complications associated with hematuria or urinary tract infection. Severe: There are definite signs and symptoms, the activity of renal angiography see more than two vertebrae, or, although not more than two vertebrae, but there are obvious distortions ureter, hydronephrosis, renal stones or merger occurs dysfunction, ultrasound Check the kidney activity more than 6cm. Treatment: Treatment varies on the severity of the case. Treatment is as follow for surgical: Treatment department: Surgical Urology Nephrology Medicine Treatment: Surgical treatment of drug rehabilitation treatment Treatment period: 14-30 days The cure rate: 50% -70% Drugs Treatment: Buzhongyiqi pills (pill) Oral Buzhongyiqi Treatment for no surgical is as follow: Non-surgical treatments include high fever calorie diet, increased perirenal fat; more bed rest, bed elevation thigh; strengthening exercises, increased perirenal fat; more bed rest, leg elevation when in bed; strengthening exercises to increase abdominal tension; abdominal massage ; electrical stimulation; elimination of foci of infection; conditioning neurasthenia; the use of various types of renal care c References

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Adoration Of The Magi Essays - Adoration Of The Magi In Art

Adoration Of The Magi Essays - Adoration Of The Magi In Art Adoration Of The Magi Iconographical Analysis: di Nardo, Adoration of the Magi The painting Adoration of the Magi by di Nardo portrays the three Magi approaching the baby Jesus and the Virgin Mary. However, there is much more to it than just this familiar scene from Judeo-Christian lore. When approaching this painting in order to analyze it iconographically, it is necessary to first look at all aspects of the form. If this aspect is ignored, it provides for an incomplete analysis of the painting. Once this is looked at, the iconography of the painting becomes much clearer, and it is easier to compare the painting to the actual biblical text from which it was derived (Gospel of St. Matthew 2:1 2:12). When approaching the painting the first thing I noticed was the odd perspective. There are several vanishing points. Also, all of the figures seem to be placed on one plane. Because of this, the two figures that represent Jesus and Mary seem to be hovering weirdly above the ground. This, I believe, draws the viewers attention to these two figures, since they are the main focus of the painting. Due to the influence of my culture, I recognized the figures as Jesus and Mary immediately. However, despite this, there are a few indicators as to who the people represented in the painting are. When viewing the painting, it is obvious that the figures of mother and child are the main point because the gazes of all of the people in the represented center on the child, including the mothers. Also, the weird hovering effect also directs the viewers attention to these two figures. Both Mary and Jesus have halos, but this is not necessarily a distinguishing factor seeing as how there are also four other figures in the painting that have halos. However, the halo that surrounds the head of the baby Jesus has a slightly different pattern than those that the other figures possess. This lets you know that for whatever reason, this child is set apart from all other figures in the painting. So, even if the viewer is of another culture or religion and doesnt see the significance of the female i n the picture being clothed in blue and red, or the significance of the blessing position in which the baby is holding his hand, he can see that for some reason, this child is being distinguished from all other people in the painting. Another aspect of the form that draws your attention to the Virgin and Jesus is the triangular set up of these two figures along with Joseph and another Magus. The triangle that is formed has Mary and Jesus at the peak, yet again, drawing the viewers attention to these two figures and reinforcing the fact that they are of some significance. When comparing the painting to the text in the Bible that describes the same meeting of the Magi with the baby Jesus and Mary, there are several differences. There are certain things that I noticed that not only go contrary to the painting, but to popular cultures idea of this story. First, in the Bible, the Magi are referred to as, chief priests and teachers of the law. They were not kings as they are often referred to in Christian culture. In fact, in di Nardos depiction, all of the Magi are wearing crowns, showing this misunderstanding. Another thing that is assumed by di Nardo in his painting, as well as by popular culture is that there were three Magi. There is nothing mentioned in Matthew 2:1 2:12 that makes reference to there being exactly three Magi. What I noticed that might have lead to this misconception, however, is that the Magi brought gifts of gold, incense and myrrh. This is the only thing that I saw that could have lead to the belief that there were three Magi one Magus for each gift. There are also extra people in the painting whom I could not identify. There is no mention of anyone in the bible besides Jesus, Mary and the Magi. There is not even any mention of Joseph who is clearly depicted. Also, the gifts that the Magi are holding in the

Thursday, November 21, 2019

An Orthodox Poem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

An Orthodox Poem - Essay Example These terms may be used interchangeably to pertain to money. Noticeably, Stevens uses simple, even slang terms to make his subject easy, thus implying address of the general public, or the common people. Stevens could have used other terms like banknote or currency but such terms would deviate from the purpose of giving the simplest terms for money in the introduction and then move on to the more complex meaning of the subject. . In the second stanza, Stevens mentions the ways to use money. The lines, â€Å"Chock it up,/fork it over, shell it out./Watch it burn holes through pockets.† (4-6) reveals what a person can do with money. There is a slight change in tone with the first two lines of this stanza still sounding slang, whereas the third line sounds figurative. Stevens gets deeper into his subject matter by using imagery and metaphor in the third line. He indirectly compares money with fire, making it capable of burning â€Å"holes through pockets† (6). The first tw o lines express how people can manipulate money, whereas the third shows a magnificent power that money has as it can â€Å"burn holes† or leave a person empty-handed. Stevens provides deeper meanings of the term money as the poem progresses. As such, the third stanza provides an even deeper meaning of money by giving implications of having money. The lines, â€Å"To be made of it! To have it to burn!† (7-8) could mean two things. Literally, it can mean that money can support a person when used for sustenance. Figuratively, it can also mean that depending on money can make one burn or go to hell. Considering this, Stevens does not only illustrate an orthodox style but even demonstrates Orthodox beliefs about hell and temptation. The terms in next line, namely, â€Å"Greenbacks, double eagles, megabucks and Ginnie Maes† (9) pertain to enormous amount of money, which could lead a person to make sins and later burn in hell due to temptation. Such infusion of belief about burning is allegorical in tone. The fourth stanza balances the meanings provided in the earlier stanza by giving the positive functions of money. â€Å"It greases the palm, feathers a nest,† (10) and so on. The words in this stanza pertain to the use of money in supporting or feeding a family or making a person survive. Stevens uses more images to illustrate his point, such greasing the palm with food to eat, feathering a nest to provide shelter to a family, and letting a person survive the depth of the water in a sea. On one hand, these descriptions strongly imply the role of money in human life. On the other hand, these words also show the dependency of people on money. Such connotations further imply the negative side of money, thus serving as anti-thesis to lines 10-11. The fifth stanza further illustrates the power of money and its presence in the world as the poem states, it is â€Å"always in circulation† (15). Stevens uses denotation and connotation agai n in this stanza. As for the denotation, money can gather people’s as it can afford a lot of things. For the connotation, money gathers the interest of many when a person with a lot of money is lavishly clothed. Furthermore, it implies that people with money become popular and are always in circulation. The last stanza bears the most negative implications of money. Once again, the author uses denotation and connotation. The persona warns the addressee about putting money in the mouth, despite not knowing where it comes

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Construction Projects Funding Sources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Construction Projects Funding Sources - Essay Example The researcher states that the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has outlined special requirements which are to be adhered to in construction projects. All public construction contracts must contain these requirements so as to enable the funding of these construction projects. The applicable state construction contract rules should be adhered to in acquiring contracts for the projects funded under the ARRA. The following are some of the ARRA requirements; all the workers employed by contractors should be paid at rates that are not less than those that other workers doing similar projects in the same locality. The Buy American Act; all the construction materials being used in the construction projects of public property should be manufactured in the country. The construction contract will be terminated if these rules will not be adhered to. ARRA is always strict that these funds should be committed to the projects fully. In contract funding, there is a wide variety of fund ing methods. One of the funding sources is through the use of Cash reserves. This is money that is deposited in the bank accounts of clients. A client can fund a construction project through the use of short-term bank deposits in form of savings or fixed deposits, cash deposited in bank accounts in the form of savings or money that was invested in the money markets and treasury bills. Money market instruments are financial instruments that are given by banks and other financial institutions or from the government. These instruments can vary from treasury bills and certificates of deposit that are thought to be of very low risk. Most of these instruments have low returns, but, at the same time, they are very safe since they are supported by the state and reputable institutions. A client might have invested in the money markets, hence, if the client wants to fund a construction project, then the client will have to sell the treasury bills or certificate of deposits and use the cash ac quired to develop his/ her construction projects.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Telecom Sector report Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Telecom Sector report - Research Paper Example persistent security challenges, robust growth in connectivity demand and continued innovation in services and devices that are utilized in the communication industry. Continued innovation and emergence of new technology has been of essence to the industry as the industry approaches maximum penetration into the United States market. It will be a challenge for the telecom industry to repeat the high performance that were registered in the past ten years as mergers yield higher concentration and consolidation of the players. The management of the telecom industry has hopes that the new technology and innovation will continue to create new opportunities as well as growth of the industry. The industry has recorded $ 750 billion of revenue across all segments. The revenue is expected to grow by +3.9% every year to reach almost 1.2 trillion dollars in total revenue (Huemann, 2014). As the number of the telecom segments continues to grow and penetrate into the market, growth over the next 10 years is more likely to slow as to nearly half of the growth that was registered in the last ten years even though the revenue is expected to increase by over $ 40 billion. The United States telecommunication industry encompasses advanced technology based services that includes the internet, wireless communication, satellites and fiber optics in addition to the traditional areas of local and long distance telephone services. The sector is also linked with entertainment of various types. Cable TV systems for example Comcast are offering high speed internet access and local telephone services. This paper will provide returns of the telecom industry; provide financial analysis, present tables and graphs showing the valuation multipliers, provide a description of telecom sector and discuss the social and economic factors that impact on the performance of the industry. Innovation, ingenuity, reasonable approach to spending and cost control will help propel the industry to the next level

Friday, November 15, 2019

Children and Adoption Act Legislation Evaluation

Children and Adoption Act Legislation Evaluation Looking at ‘The Children and Adoption Act’ identify and trace the development of the policy in its present format Introduction In 2005 the Children and Adoption Act was created in response to a green paper entitled Parental Separation: Children’s Needs and Parents’ Responsibilities (2004). This new bill addresses issues both in the realm of contact between children and separated parents, and foreign adoption issues. However, for the purposes of this essay the researcher will focus on the issues of contact, as these are the most pressing and widely talked about aspects of the bill. Firstly, we will outline the major points of this legislation. As a response to the green paper and an update on both the 2002 Making Contact Work report and the 1989 Children Act, the Children and Adoption Act (2005) aims to address certain key issues of contact between separated or divorced parents and children. The major part of the legislation deals with new processes and powers given to courts when issuing and enforcing contact orders. Firstly, a new initiative known as ‘contact activity directions’ is now available to the courts. These directions allow the court to help promote contact between non-resident parents and children through various courses or counselling. For example, by going for psychiatric or physical treatment to improve the likelihood of cooperation between children and the separated parents. Additional powers granted to the courts are also an important part of this bill. The court now has added power to monitor contact and to report back to the court about the maintenance of such orders. Further, the court now needs to attach a notice of warning to contact orders stating the consequences of a breach of the order. Family assistance orders can now be issued in more than just exceptional circumstances, allowing for a greater opportunity to develop cooperation and contact arrangements. The way in which a breach of a contact order can be punished has also changed. In the past, options open to the court were to put the parent in breach in prison or fine them an amount of money, transfer residence of the children to the other parent, or do nothing. These options were often inadequate or not available in all cases, and so the laws have been changed. A parent in breach of a contact order can now face what is known as an ‘enforcement order’ which can be applied for by either parent or the children concerned. This enforcement order will invoke a requirement for unpaid work on the offender, meaning they will have to carry out a certain amount of duties or work for no fee – much like community service. The court needs to be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the person is failing or has failed to comply, and that the making of an order is necessary to secure compliance with the order. Once an order is initiated, a Children and Family Court Advisory a nd Support Service (CAFCASS) officer will monitor the situation and report back to the court about compliance. If breach occurs again then the order can be extended or increased as the court sees fit. Another way in which a breach can be punished by the court is through compensation to the other party for financial loss suffered as a consequence of the breach. This is meant to be compensation rather than a punitive payment, and is based upon the financial situation of the offender as well as the needs of the child. These are the main areas of interest in the new Children and Adoption Act in terms of contact, and will be discussed in detail throughout the rest of the essay. In order to do this, the reasoning and objectives behind this new bill first need to be look at. The three main objectives are as follows: To promote and stimulate contact activity between children and non-resident parents To improve the monitoring of compliance with contact orders and reduce delays in complying with these orders. To give the courts increased powers to punish breaches of contact orders that punish the offender and result in compliance rather than harming the welfare of the child. These objectives are in response to a number of issues raised over the last few years. Of these issues, the most notable is the bias towards mothers in terms of contact, with the majority of mothers being the resident parent after separation. Many examples of fathers being denied contact by mothers are documented, and some of these will be discussed later in the essay. The main aim of this essay is to compare the current Children and Adoption Bill to previous legislation, and whether or not it manages to meet its objectives and address the issues that have caused controversy over the last 15 years. The researcher aims to show that whilst this new legislation does go some way to improving the previous situation and improving the chances of contact between children and non-resident parents, it still lacks gender specific policies to deal with the socio-cultural bias towards mothers in parental disputes over contact. Comparisons with previous legislation The original legislation put in place to deal with issues of parental separation and child contact were outlined in the 1989 Children Act. The major problems with this legislation were that it didn’t give enough powers to courts to enforce compliance of contact orders, and that contact was not generally promoted outside of the orders. This resulted in many orders being breached and lengthy delays in getting breached orders enforced. The powers open to the courts meant that many non-resident parents, usually fathers, were unable to see their children due to mothers denying access. Another problem is that the 1989 Act gave parental responsibility automatically to the mother if the parents were not married at the time of the child’s birth, and the father had to apply for responsibility if an agreement could not be reached with the mother. Basically, the rights of a non-married father were fairly limited under this bill. Also, there was a severe lack of monitoring in terms of compliance with the bill and the general contact situation. This left the door open for unfounded allegations by mothers against the fathers in order to stop or delay contact. Even those fathers that clearly established themselves as fit to have contact often found they were unable to obtain contact in the face of hostility from the resident parent. Even with court intervention, not much could often be done. The options open to the court were to put the mother in prison, fine the mother, hand over residence to the father or do nothing. Prison and monetary sanctions were often not practical as they harmed the welfare of the child, and residence passing to the father was not always possible if their residence was unsuitable for the child. In many cases, a severely non-compliant mother would face no penalties for breaching the contact order, and so the father would be unable to see the child at all. Although it wasn’t always the case that the father lost out, even when he was able to get contact there were often large delays and extreme stress involved to do so, and the situation could change. Examples of just how difficult it was for the courts to make decisions about contact under this legislation can be seen in the following two case examples. 1 Family Law Reform 1279 (2004). In S (A Child) (Contact : Promoting Relationship with Absent Parent). The appeals court looked at a father appeal against the dismissal of an application for direct contact with his daughter, aged six. There had been separation between parents five years previously, and voluntary arrangements that had worked in the beginning had since broken down. The child was reluctant to have contact, mainly due to the mother’s extreme reluctance to make any form of contact work, and there were unproven allegations of domestic violence by the mother against the father. The president of the FLR put the dilemma as follows: â€Å"If a mother is truly recalcitrant, the court can commit to prison for contempt or fine the mother. Most mothers do not have enough money to pay a significant fine and this sanction is seldom used, particularly since she is the primary carer of the child. Equally the sanction of prison for mothers who refuse to allow contact is a heavy one and may well be a self-defeating one†¦At this stage also the court may have the evidence that the continuing efforts to persuade the mother to agree to contact are having a disproportionately adverse effect upon the child whose welfare is paramount and the court may find it necessary, however reluctantly, to stop trying to promote contact. That is a very sad situation but may be necessary for a short or for a longer time if the welfare of the child requires it†. In this case, she granted the appeal to allow the parties to jointly instruct a consultant child psychiatrist to asses the family and the contact prospects. Although this is in some way positive, it doesn’t help the father see his child at all, and delays contact even further. This next case of 1 FLR 1226 (2004) D (A Child) (Intractable Contact Dispute : Publicity) shows even further the problems that occur for fathers when the mother denies access. The mother had in this case had not allowed the father to see his daughter at all for 2.5 years, and it was clear this situation was not going to change. Munby J concluded that the father would have to abandon his contact application because the mother was clearly not going to change her mind, and there was very little the courts could do to change this situation. He said: â€Å"There are no simple solutions. And it is idle to imagine that even the best system can overcome all problems. The bitter truth is that there will always be some contact cases so intractable that they will defeat even the best and most committed attempts of judges. But that is no reason for not taking steps — urgent steps — to improve the system as best we can†. This was clearly a injustice, and many pressure groups have formed over the years to combat such issues and greatly improve the rights of fathers in these proceedings. This has come about due to such cases as well as the clear desire of modern fathers to be more involved in the lives and upbringing of their children (O’Brien Shemilt, 2003). Two of the main groups around today are Families Need Fathers and Fathers For Justice (see websites and Families Need Fathers have tried to combat these issues by appealing for change, and are the largest such charity in the UK. Fathers For Justice are quite different in their approach, and have staged aggressive protests over recent years involving climbing up buildings dressed as superheroes and often getting arrested for their troubles. However, their controversial protests have divided the community on these issues, with many believing their actions show real passion whilst others believing their reckless behaviour does nothing for the cause and simply damages the reputations of other fathers (Kelly, 2006). Although these groups vary radically in their ways of tackling the issues, their existence clearly shows the desire for change. The previously mentioned cases and increasing coverage in the media led to the 2002 review of policy in the 2002 report by the Children’s Act Sub-Committee to the Lord Chancellor entitled Making Contact Work. Many of the issues raised in cases and through the work of pressure groups came to the fore in this report, including the issues of giving courts more power, reducing delays, promoting contact and increasing monitoring facilities so that contact orders are maintained. This report set the foundation for the 2004 Green paper and the subsequent Children and Adoption Act in 2005. The benefits of this act will be looked at next. Benefits of the Children and Adoption Act The Children and Adoption Act (2005) has been seen as a possible breakthrough in the fight against inequality for non-resident parents, and a step towards better contact once separation has occurred. In general terms, the Act is an acknowledgement that previous laws were inadequate in terms of contact orders and rights for non-resident parents in the face of non-compliance from resident parents. The first major benefit of this act is the new powers to promote contact through the use of contact direction activities. Previously, a non-compliant resident parent might feel that the non-resident parent is unfit or unsuitable to be allowed contact with the child or children. However, contact direction activities allow the resident parent to get reassurances that the non-resident parent is altering their behaviour and improving through various treatments and counselling. This can help promote contact and allow the parties involved to work towards an amicable solution. If this does not work, then the consequences of breaching the contact order are far clearer than they were before. Although non-compliant resident parents generally knew the consequences previously, they were not as firm as they are now or as enforceable. The new laws regarding punishment for breach are also a big improvement on the previous penalties of fines and imprisonment. The unpaid work punishment via an enforcement order is much more workable, and provides real consequences for the non-compliant parent as well as reducing the harm to the child. The further punishment of compensation is also better than a fine, as this money still stays within the parent unit and the financial situation and welfare of the child are taken into account. However, perhaps the most important benefit associated with this new bill is the increased monitoring facilities on offer, allowing for quicker decisions and a reduction in delays for non-resident parents. Through monitoring by CAFCASS and court officials, evidence regarding allegations made against parents can be quickly obtained and the status of compliance with the contact order can also be monitored. This acts as a deterrent against making unfounded allegations and breaching the contact order, and also allows for speedy reestablishment of contact should the order be broken. Overall, the Children and Adoption Act (2005) represents a definite improvement on previous legislation. Despite this, there are still many issues that are not resolved, especially in terms of gender bias. The next section will deal with these specific issues and how they relate to the new bill. Gender Issues Not Dealt With Although the bill is seen as an improvement on the 1989 legislation, it has still come in for much criticism for not dealing with the gender issues that are at the heart of debate on contact law. The new Children and Adoption Act does make it easier for contact laws to be enforced, but shies away from issues of gender bias that have been the major cause for concern for many people. The law still fails to deal with the major issue of gender bias towards mothers due to the large percentage of mothers who are the resident parents after separation, and the general socio-cultural bias in favour of the importance of mothers for children. It has also been noted by the aforementioned pressure groups that mothers often obstruct or at the very least fail to encourage contact for the non-resident father. It is believed that a more adequate solution to the problem would be to give an automatic 50:50 division to parents, thereby eliminating gender bias altogether. Although this is a very good idea in principle, in practical terms it is unlikely to work because of the possibly unsuitability of one parent in such situations, and so a 50:50 split might not be in the best interests of the children involved. Although it is generally accepted that the bias is still towards mothers, there is some evidence to suggest that the gender bias goes both ways, and is more a bias towards the non-resident parent than a gender specific issue. In Kielty (2005), the views a small sample of non-resident mothers in the UK, who now number over 130,000, are taken into account. It shows that although many of the non-resident mothers have a good relationship with their children and still have contact, that some are denied access due to the reluctance of the resident father to allow contact. In these cases, it has been no easier for the mothers to gain access than it has for the typical non-resident fathers. This study further shows how the Children and Adoption Act fails to deal with all aspects of the gender bias in contact cases, and due to the much higher number of non-resident fathers than non-resident mothers, the legislation can be seen as much more favourable to mothers than it is to fathers. One thing that was also made clear in the Kielty (2006) study and Sobolewski and King (2005) study is that these gender bias issues can be overcome, but only if the parents have a good relationship and are willing to work together. In the Kielty (2006) study, the mothers who generally had contact with their children were the ones who had voluntarily become the non-resident parent, and had a good level of cooperation with their ex-partners. The same was true in the Sobolewski and King (2005) study, where it found that high levels of parental cooperation allowed for increased levels of contact and less of a need for court proceedings. However, the study also found that cooperation after separation was fairly uncommon, with 66% of mothers saying the father of their child had no influence on the child’s upbringing. It is clear that more needs to be done than the current legislation allows for, and although the objectives of giving more power to the courts, reducing delays and improving monitoring have been met, the issues of gender bias and cooperation still need much work. The findings of this essay will now be concluded, and there will also be a look at what the future holds for parental contact legislation. Conclusions It is clear that the problems of the 1989 Children Act seen in various case examples, and the continued campaigning and media coverage of pressure groups have helped to shape the Children and Adoption Act of 2005. In many ways, this bill is a huge step forward in the fight to establish equality of contact with children for resident and non-resident parents after separation. There is a great improvement in the powers of the court to enforce the contact orders, and much more workable punishments for breaches. Also, monitoring has been improved with the cooperation of CAFCASS and so delays in getting contact orders and allegations analysed are being reduced. Also, the ability to promote contact through contact direction activities is a definite step in the right direction. It can be said that the three main objectives of increasing court powers, improving promotion of contact and improve contact order monitoring have all been achieved. However, there are still some major issues that have not been dealt with, namely the gender bias still in place against fathers. With so many more non-resident fathers than non-resident mothers, and the increased likelihood of mothers to deny access to fathers, the legislation still does not give fathers the equal rights to see their children that they deserve. In a bid to address this, the government is now trying to focus on improving cooperation between separated parents so as to ease conflict and reduce the problems of bias in the legislation. One way that this is being done is through pilot family resolution projects (Samuel, 2006). These pilot schemes have had a fairly low turnout, but have shown that agreements can be reached through an improvement in mutual parent understanding and cooperation. However, there is still a long way to go to make this scheme workable, and so far results are not much better than for in-court conciliation. The gender bias issue definitely needs to be dealt with through future legislation or more effective means of improving cooperation between parents. Also, the involvement of the children in this process is key, especially those older children. Their needs and opinions should be of paramount importance when deciding the outcome of contact disputes. The current legislation is definitely an improvement, but there is still much to be done if fathers are to have the same rights of contact as mothers after parental separation. Bibliography Clarke, C., Falconer, Hewitt, P. (2004) Parental Separation: Childrens Needs and Parents Responsibilities Green Paper, The Stationery Office, London Connolly, J., Kellet, J., Notley, C., Swift, L. and Trinder, L. (2006) Making contact happen or making contact work? The process and outcomes of in-court conciliation. Department for Constitutional Affairs Research Unit, London Department for Education and Skills DfES (2005) Children and Adoption Bill (HL) Explanatory Notes Edwards, J. (2006) Enforcement of Contact Orders A New Era? in Family Law. Vol. 36 pi 25- 130 ePolitix (2006) Children and Adoption Bill [HL] Families Need Fathers FNF (2005) Parental Responsibility Fathers 4 Justice (2005) Fathers 4 Justice Campaign Objectives objectives/indexhtm Fathers 4 Justice (2005) Fathers 4 Justice Press Articles articles/index.htm Fawcett Society (2006) Family Courts Fact sheet (Accessed May 2006) Kelly, L. (2006) Real dads failed by clowns of F4J Opinion in The Sun. 21 January 2006 Kielty, S. (2005) Mothers are Non-resident Parents Too: A Consideration of Mothers Perspectives on Non-residential Parenting in The Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law. Vol 27 No.l p 1-16 O’Brien, M. Shemilt, I. (2003) Working Fathers: Earning and Caring, EOC Research Discussion Series, Equal Opportunities Commission, Manchester. OPSI (1989) The Children Act 1989 (c.41) en 3.htm Samuel, M. (2006) Special Report on Family Resolution Schemes Sarler, C (1991) Act of kindness for the children: Childrens Act in The Sunday Times. London, 13 October 1991 Wall, J (2005) Enforcement of Contact Orders in Family Law. Vol 35 p 26-32 Sobolewski, J. and King, V. (2005) The Importance of the Coparental Relationship for Non-resident Fathers ties to Children in The Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol 67 p 1196-1212

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Nuclear Energy Essay example -- essays research papers fc

Some may ask what is nuclear energy the dictionary defines this as: nuclear energy n. 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The energy released by a nuclear reaction, especially by fission or fusion. 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nuclear energy regarded as a source of power. Also called atomic energy Nuclear power was first known to be researched in the early 1900's, and by the world war; it reached its greatest peak by demonstrating to the world its power to destroy. Nuclear energy can be good or bad, depending on how the person works with this material; it is used for both sides good and bad. Scientists were unsure from the beginning of how it was possible to get energy from the material called Uranium. They were sure that with its uniqueness it would be able to transform itself into different elements. So they were unsure of it for many years, until Albert Einstein he explored the world of nuclear energy. In 1905 he released his theory of the famous equation e=mc2 with this he knew that uranium was able to create masses of electricity. A few years later, scientists found out the great power of the atomic energy. Since then, both scientist and the public were unable to find the best fit for nuclear energy in our society. We have put it into power plants, but the government and public were disappointed by accidents. We have put it into war, and with it we have caused great damages. So the question is where can this energy go?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Even though it has been discovered to be the greatest power source of the world today, nobody is willing to cooperate with it because of these accidents and accomplishments. I am not sure if my findings are accurate but by source tells me that today there are a total of 432 nuclear power plants and the amount keeps on lowering everyday. Most of the US and Europe power plants have been shut down completely. The Asian power plant has kept its production going, and it is predicted that Asia might become the biggest energy producer of the world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nuclear waste has sometimes been called the Achilles' heel of the nuclear power industry; much of the controversy over nuclear power concentrates on the lack of a disposal system for the radioactive spent fuel that must be regularly removed from operating reactors. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and 1987 amendments, the Dep... ...ick. The 'dome' is designed to withstand earthquakes or a direct hit by a crashing jumbo jet. There is also a large number of sensors that pick up increases in radiation or humidity. An increase in radiation or humidity could mean there is a leak. There are systems that control and stop the chain reaction if necessary. An Emergency Cooling System for the core ensures that in the event of an accident there is enough cooling water to cool the reactor. Bibliography-website ( Cons on Nuclear Energy: Reliability One disadvantage of uranium mining is that it leaves 'mill tailings', the residues from chemical processing of the ore, which leads to radon exposure to the public. These effects are over-compensated for by the fact that mining uranium out of the ground reduces future radon exposures. Coal burning leaves ashes that will increase future radon exposures. The estimates of radon effects are very much in favor of nuclear plants. Mining of the fuel required to operate a nuclear plant for one year will avert a few hundred deaths, while the ashes from a coal-burning plant will cause 300 death.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Sunday, November 10, 2019

New Orleans: After the Storm

On the 29th of August, 2005, a Category 3 Hurricane swept across the state of Louisiana and dealt major damages to the City of New Orleans, a tragedy never to be forgotten by the American Nation. Though the hurricane never hit the city itself, through its huge rainfall content, it has caused levee breaches which had dealt the most damage as flood devastated the city, and was thus dubbed as the worst engineering disaster in the history of the United States (Kilpatrick & Dermisi, 2007). Lost of lives and property were dealt during the incident, as the crime rates hiked up due to the disorder caused by the hurricane, and images of criminals engaging grand theft auto were seen live on television, as buildings were burning or being wrecked by the flood.Critics continue to blame various groups, individuals and factors for the terrible incident which has scarred the people’s hearts and minds, and has terrorized and affected both individuals and their pets who were residents of the ci ty, still learning who to blame, and being tight in releasing funds for insurance claims, and learning whether the state should pay for the damages or not. Yet, whether damages were paid or remain unpaid, and whether individuals who should be blamed were blamed or left unquestioned, it must be realized that beyond restoring the finances of the people and giving due justice, healing the wounds of each and every resident of New Orleans who currently suffer from the emotional, and psychological baggage which burden each and every one of them must be realized and given due priority.Faulty Urban Planning. The development of cities and industries has caused the increase of population in areas near industrial zones in consideration to the convenience brought about by being near to the jobs present in the area. The continuing increase in the population and demand for cheap homes have been the critical factors in pursuing the building of homes in marshlands, swamps, reclamation areas, and ot her low ground areas by the Government led United States Army Corps of Engineers, in the City of New Orleans. After the construction of the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal in 1940, the state closed the commercial waterways which were used before for waterborne commerce, leading to the drastic lowering of the city’s water table.The US Army Corps of Volunteers then built a levee system around the area covering much of the city’s marshlands and swamps, without consideration to the possible subsidence brought about by the compression of underlying soils. These brought about land subsidence of up to 8 feet or 2 meters in some areas which were reclaimed by the US government. A recent study of the Tulane University notes that 49% of New Orleans is below sea level, with the majority of the population on the higher ground. However, the mean elevation of the city has become between 1 and 2 feet below the sea level, with some parts as high as 16 feet and some parts as deep as 10 fe et. The city is also bordered by the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, and is marbled with canals and bayous (Galle, 2007) which maybe considered geologically hazardous.Moving on. Two years after the incident, the residents of New Orleans are still trying to cope up with the emotions, and the losses which they have incurred during Hurricane Katrina. For some individuals, moving on might be a very easy thing to do, especially if they have some other place to move on to. Yet for some, the typhoon was just the beginning, especially if they’re homes have been washed out or burned by some thug or all their assets and even their pets are gone. A year after the typhoon businesses in the high ground started to bloom again, as most of the restaurants are open, the Convention Center began to have bookings, and almost all of the premium office space in the business district is occupied, and the Port of New Orleans is nearly back to normal.Tourists have also started to come back, and almost half of New Orleans’ pre-Katrina population is back mostly crowded into the high ground along the river (Ydstie, 2006). For some individuals, the damage dealt by Hurricane Katrina was something that has made them further down, as insurance companies refused to pay some victims due to some loopholes within the insurance policies such as the wind vis-à  -vis flood, and the flood vis-à  -vis hurricane policies. Some insurance companies claim that individuals could not be compensated for their wrecked homes if their insurance policy says that their houses are insured for hurricane since it was the flooding that has caused the house to be destroyed, a heartless argument that gives no consideration to the logic that there would be no flood if there was no hurricane at all. Worse are the insurance companies who argue that wind was the cause for the houses’ roofs to come off and the flooding did not cause it, thus they would only pay partially for the damages.The se defenses and loopholes of insurance companies made things worst for Katrina Victims, and should be condemned. While most of the individuals suffer from more stressful damages brought about by such insurance companies, what should be stressed for them is the fact that, the first rule of insurance policy construction is that ambiguous policy language is interpreted against the drafter (â€Å"contra proferentem†) which in most cases are the insurance companies, and also that, insurance agents, must also then be sued for their negligence towards their jobs of making such loophole-full policies (Abraham, 2007). Also individuals who lost their houses are troubled by some policies such as the high ground policy which forces them to make their houses higher, individuals who have problems with stairs such as those suffering from arthritis are troubled by this.Pets after Katrina. During the Hurricane, the residents of New Orleans initially saving their lives left their pets behind. Cats and dogs of different breeds and species were lost, and were forced to roam a world which was unknown to them, while being thirsty and unfed, and while some residents were trying to find back their pets some individuals were arrogant about them such as the cop who threw out a dog named snowball out of a bus (â€Å"Snowball! Snowball!†, 2005). A year after the incident, organizations such as the North Shore Animal League of America, helped retrieved pets of New Orleans’ residents. Initiatives to house some of the pets which no one claimed, however there has been a lack of credible population to adopt such pets.Lessons learned. Some individuals say that the impact Hurricane Katrina has dealt is comparable to the impact of the Oakland Firestorm which hit Oakland California in 1991, which then, was a large urban fire which occurred in the northern Oakland, California, and which has killed 25 people and injured 150 others. While some issues of Hurricane Katrina are com parable, such as the amount of damage dealt, and the fact that most of the victims of the Oakland Firestorm were somewhat unaware of their insurance policies just like the victims of Katrina, the issues of complacency and uncompetitive planning are the factors which make the circumstances of the two incidents different. While the damages dealt by Hurricane Katrina were due to the lack of mitigation, and the lack of competitive advantage in terms of planning, the damages brought about by the fire in Oakland California were mainly due to the complacency of the residents and the local municipality in terms of controlling the fire.Reflections. While it holds true that acts of God could never be controlled by man, it must always be taken into consideration, that God has given us our brains for us to analyze and think about what we can do just in case. In the case of Hurricane Katrina, the damage could have been avoided if there were only enough mitigation done, such as holding studies ab out the geography and the soil composition of the area, and taking a close monitor over the movements of the soil and the water levels, and making detailed and well thought off engineering measures to prevent such incident from happening again. It must also be taken into account that there have been not enough measures to provide emotional support for the victims of the typhoon, and such emotional stress and tension must be given consideration and priority by the government and other support groups.ReferencesAbraham, K.S. 2007. In Brief : The Hurricane Katrina Insurance Claims. Virginia LawReview, 93, 157-164.Bach, A., & Miller, C., 2003. Lessons Shared from Oakland-Berkely Hills. Retrieved September14, 2007, from, J. 2007. Special Reports : Vulnerable Cities. Retrieved September 15, 2007 from, J.A., & Dermisi, S. 2 007. The Aftermath of Katrina: Recommendationsfor Real Estate Research. Journal of Real Estate Literature.Snowball! Snowball! The Little Dog Who Broke A Nation's Heart! Hurricane Katrina'sLittlest Victim. 2005. Muttshack Animal Rescue Foundation, posted Sept. 6 2005. Retrieved, September 14, 2007 from, Ydstie, J. 2006. Katrina Victims Still Struggle to Find Way Home. Retrieved September14, 2007 from

Friday, November 8, 2019

What Is the Platt Amendment Definition and Significance

What Is the Platt Amendment Definition and Significance SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips In 1898, the US was fighting the Spanish-American War and occupying Cuba as part of its involvement in maintaining the island’s newfound independence. Once the war was over, the US still wanted to maintain influence in Cuba. In order to achieve this, the Platt Amendment was passed. Read this guide to learn what the Platt Amendment includes, why it was created, what important dates are associated with it, and how its impacts live on today, including how it led to the creation of Guantanamo Bay. What Is the Platt Amendment? In simplest terms, the Platt Amendment was a treaty between the United States and Cuba that established guidelines for US-Cuban relations. The US wanted to maintain influence in Cuba to protect its interests there, but Cubans were wary of being under the control of another foreign power after recently gaining independence from Spain. The Platt Amendment was an attempt to appease both countries. The Platt Amendment set conditions under which the US would end its military occupation of Cuba but also granted the US the right to involve itself in Cuban affairs in order to protect Cuban independence. The Platt Amendment was drafted by Elihu Root, who was Secretary of State at the time, and in 1901 it was presented to the Senate by Senator Orville Platt of Connecticut as a rider attached to the Army Appropriations Bill. (Riders are sometimes also referred to as amendments, which is why it is called the Platt Amendment.) The Platt Amendment placed some pretty stringent restrictions on Cuba. It gave the United States pretty much unlimited ability to intervene in any Cuban affair for the purpose of preserving Cuban independence, prevented Cuba from transferring any of its land to any country other than the United States, limited Cuba’s right to negotiate treaties, gave the US rights to a naval base in Cuba (what is now Guantanamo Bay). It was reluctantly accepted by Cuba, who amended their Constitution to include it. There were seven articles in the Platt Amendment, and the Cuban government had to agree to all of them before the US withdrew its troops from the island and recognized Cuban sovereignty. Here are the articles of the Platt Amendment: Article I. The Government of Cuba shall never enter into any treaty or other compact with any foreign power or powers which will impair or tend to impair the independence of Cuba, nor in any manner authorize or permit any foreign power or powers to obtain by colonization or for military or naval purposes, or otherwise, lodgment in or control over any portion of said island. Article II. The Government of Cuba shall not assume or contract any public debt to pay the interest upon which, and to make reasonable sinking-fund provision for the ultimate discharge of which, the ordinary revenues of the Island of Cuba, after defraying the current expenses of the Government, shall be inadequate. Article III. The Government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the Treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the Government of Cuba. . . . Article V. The Government of Cuba will execute, and, as far as necessary, extend the plans already devised, or other plans to be mutually agreed upon, for the sanitation of the cities of the island, to the end that a recurrence of epidemic and infectious diseases may be prevented, thereby assuring protection to the people and commerce of Cuba, as well as to the commerce of the Southern ports of the United States and the people residing therein.... Article VII. To enable the United States to maintain the independence of Cuba, and to protect the people thereof, as well as for its own defense, the Government of Cuba will sell or lease to the United States lands necessary for coaling or naval stations, at certain specified points, to be agreed upon with the president of the United States. What Led to the Creation of the Platt Amendment? The Platt Amendment came about as a result of the Spanish-American War, which occurred in 1898. During the roughly four months that the war lasted, the United States had a large military presence in Cuba, which it was ready to use to protect the US against Spanish attacks and protect US economic interests in Cuba. The day before the US entered the Spanish-American War, the Teller Amendment was passed by Congress. President William McKinley gave a speech asking Congress to allow the US to use its naval and military forces to help Cuba achieve independence, and Congress agreed but also passed the Teller Amendment, which placed limits on the US’s involvement. The Teller Amendment stated that the US couldn’t annex Cuba. Instead, the US had to help Cuba achieve stable independence, then withdraw its troops from the island once that had been achieved. This assuaged Congressional fears that President McKinley was hoping to annex Cuba. However, three years after the Spanish-American War was over and Cuba was independent, the US still had troops in Cuba. The US didn’t want to put its military and economic interests at risk by having Cuba descend into chaos during self-rule or be conquered by another foreign country. They decided to maintain a strong role in Cuban affairs until they believed their interests would be safe. Because of the Teller Amendment (which basically said the US had to help Cuba achieve independence and then leave), the Platt Amendment was drafted as a way to ensure the US could maintain a degree of control over Cuba until they were certain the country was stable and their interests would be protected. Key Dates for the Platt Amendment Below are all the key dates you need to know for events that happened before, during, and after the Platt Amendment was signed. February 24th, 1895- February 15th, 1898: The Cuban War of Independence is fought between Cuba and Spain. The final months escalate into the Spanish-American war. February 15th, 1898: The American battleship USS Maine, which was docked in Havana, explodes under mysterious circumstances, killing 258 people. The US blames Spain for the explosion which leads to the Spanish-American War. April 20th, 1898: The Teller Amendment is passed. April 21st - August 13th, 1898: The Spanish-American War is fought between Spain and the United States December 10th, 1898: The Treaty of Paris is signed. Spain agrees to grant independence to Cuba, and cedes the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico the United States. March 2nd, 1901: The Platt Amendment is passed. December 25th, 1901: Cuba amends its constitution to include the entire Platt Amendment May 22nd, 1903: Cuba and the US agree to the Cuban-American Treaty of Relations of 1903. Among other things, this treaty allows the US to intervene in Cuban affairs and lease land for naval bases on the island. September 1906 - February 1909: Second Occupation of Cuba. The Cuban-American Treaty of Relations of 1903 is used to justify US military forces occupying Cuba in order to protect American economic interests and establish a new Cuban government. May 29th, 1934: As part of FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy, the Cuban-American Treaty of Relations of 1934 is signed, repealing most of the Platt Amendment (everything except US right to a naval base in Cuba). 1940: The Platt Amendment is eliminated from the new Cuban constitution during the Cuban Constitutional Convention of 1940. What Are the Lasting Effects of the Platt Amendment? The Cuban government was very reluctant to add the Platt Amendment to their constitution, as they had just become independent and didn’t want to be controlled by another foreign power. Even though it was eventually ratified, it caused a lot of resentment among Cubans towards America. Many historians also believe that the Platt Amendment actually ended up causing more instability in Cuba, including contributing to the Cuban Revolution of the 1950s. The Platt Amendment remained in effect until 1934, when US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy repealed the majority of the amendment in response to a surge in Cuban resentment. However, one stipulation of the Platt Amendment remained: the US was allowed to continue operating its naval base Guantanamo Bay. The Good Neighbor Policy stated that the US had the right to operate its naval base "until the two contracting parties agree to the modification or abrogation of the stipulations of the agreement in regard to the lease to the United States of America for coaling and naval stations†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Because the US hasn’t agreed to any modifications, , Guantanamo Bay remains open to this day and has been a major factor in shaping modern Cuban-American relations. Summary: Platt Amendment APUSH The Platt Amendment was one of the most important events in Cuba-US relations. A simple Platt Amendment definition is that it an amendment passed in 1901 that provided guidelines that allowed the US to maintain influence in Cuba after Cuba achieved independence. What did the Platt Amendment do? It gave the US the right to have a naval base in Cuba, intervene in Cuban affairs, and control Cuba’s agreements with other countries, among other things. Although the Platt amendment was created to protect US interests in Cuba, it was widely resented in Cuba and was nearly completed repealed in 1934, although the US naval base Guantanamo Bay is still in operation in Cuba. What's Next? Writing a research paper for school but not sure what to write about?Our guide to research paper topics has over 100 topics in ten categories so you can be sure to find the perfect topic for you. Did you know that water has a very special density? Check out our guide to learn what the density of water is and how the density can change. Want to know the fastest and easiest ways to convert between Fahrenheit and Celsius?We've got you covered! Check out our guide to the best ways to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit (or vice versa).

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Copper Age Cemetery

Varna Bulgaria - Eneolithic/Copper Age Cemetery Varna is the name of a Eneolithic/Late Copper Age cemetery located in northeastern Bulgaria, slightly inland of the Black Sea and north of the Varna Lakes. The cemetery was used for about century between 4560-4450 BC. Excavations at the site have revealed a total of nearly 300 graves, within an area of approximately 7,500 square meters (81,000 square feet or approximately 2 acres). To date, the cemetery has not been found to be associated with a settlement: the closest human occupation of the same date consists of 13 pile-based lake dwellings, located near Varna Lakes and thought to be of approximately the same period. However, no connection to the cemetery has been established as of yet. Grave goods from Varna included an enormous amount of goldwork, a total of over 3,000 gold objects weighing more than 6 kilograms (13 pounds). In addition, 160 copper objects, 320 flint artifacts, 90 stone objects and more than 650 clay vessels have been found. In addition, over 12,000 dentalium shells and about 1,100 Spondylus shell ornaments were also recovered. Also collected were red tubular beads made from carnelian. Most of these artifacts were recovered from elite burials. Elite Burials Of the 294 graves, a handful were clearly high status or elite burials, probably representing chiefs. Burial 43, for example, included 990 gold artifacts weighing 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) alone. Stable isotope data suggests that the people at Varna consumed both terrestrial (millet) and marine resources: human remains associated with the richest burials (43 and 51) had isotope signatures that indicated higher percentage consumption of marine protein. A total of 43 of the graves are cenotaphs, symbolic graves containing no human remains. Some of these contained clay masks with gold objects placed in what would be the location of eyes, mouth, nose and ears. AMS radiocarbon dates on animal and human bones from burial contexts returned calibrated dates between 4608-4430 BC; but most artifacts of this type date to the later Eneolithic period, suggesting that the Black Sea location was a center of social and cultural innovation. Archaeology The Varna cemetery was discovered in 1972 and excavated well into the 1990s by Ivan S. Ivanov of the Varna Museum, G. I. Georgiev and M. Lazarov. The site has not been as yet been completely published, although a handful of scientific articles have appeared in English language journals. Sources This article is a part of the guide to the Chalcolithic, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Gaydarska B, and Chapman J. 2008. The aesthetics or colour and brilliance - or why were prehistoric persons interested in rocks, minerals, clays and pigments? In: Kostov RI, Gaydarska B, and Gurova M, editors. Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy: Proceedings of the International Conference. Sofia: Publishing House St. Ivan Rilski. p 63-66. Higham T, Chapman J, Slavchev V, Gaydarska B, Honch NV, Yordanov Y, and Dimitrova B. 2007. New perspectives on the Varna cemetery (Bulgaria) – AMS dates and social implications. Antiquity 81(313):640-654. Honch NV, Higham TFG, Chapman J, Gaydarska B, and Hedges REM. 2006. A palaeodietary investigation of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) in human and faunal bones from the Copper Age cemeteries of Varna I and Durankulak, Bulgaria. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:1493-1504. Renfrew C. 1978.  Varna and the social context of early metallurgy.  Antiquity 52(206):199-203.