Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Marketing - Essay Example Now the organization chosen to accomplish the study is McDonalds. In the external analysis the report will also shed light on the factors such as demographics, customers and also the cultural aspect. In the internal analysis section the study will emphasize on the missions and goals of McDonalds, its past marketing activities, human resources and research and development among the others. Furthermore the report will mainly try to uncover the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of the company. This will be accomplished with the help of a SWOT analysis. McDonalds Australia: A Brief Overview In the Australian context, the first outlet of the company was opened in the suburbs of Sydney which was known as Yagoona. With the course of time the company has been able to establish 780 stores and employs around 85,000 people across Australia. McDonalds Australia is not a listed company and is privately limited. It is basically a franchisee based venture where the restaurants are mo stly owned and opera rated by individual businessman (McDonalds, n.d.). Industry Analysis McDonalds is a retail food chain restaurant and it belongs to the fast food industry. Hence in order to analyze the industry Porter’s 5 forces model has been used. The analysis is presented below:- Porter’s 5 forces 1. Threat of new Entrants New entrants are described as the companies that are presently not competing within the given industry but has the potential to compete in the industry if chooses to do so. The start up of cost for such kind of business is low and there is easy access to the markets. Furthermore owing to the fact that Australia is politically stable and offers much favourable condition, the threat of a new entrant in this industry is high. 2. Threat of substitutes products Substitute products are characterized by the availability of same category products, which performs the same function as the existing product (DePamphilis, 2011, p.143). McDonalds is special ized in serving various types of Burgers to the customers. Nevertheless in this aspect there are many substitute products such as Pizzas, Sandwiches and other fast foods. Hence the threat of substitutes is also high. 3. Bargaining power of buyers The bargaining power of the buyer refers to the capability of consumers to bargain and lessen the price of the commodity or to increase the cost of the company by demanding more quality products and services (Hill and Jones, 2012, p.58). Bargaining power depends on how quickly the buyer identifies other sources. In this context there are not many established players like McDonalds, KFC and Subway among others. Hence the bargaining power of buyers is low. 4. Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers are also other organizations which provide raw materials, service to the host organization. The bargaining power refers to the capability of the suppliers to increase the price of the raw materials or to decrease the quality of goods and service wi th the supply of substandard quality materials for low price. There are large numbers of suppliers of raw items for fast food industr

Monday, October 28, 2019

Technology in Classrooms Essay Example for Free

Technology in Classrooms Essay Technology improves everyday, and it is becoming more common in the newer generations. There are many studies, I’ve read many articles about how important technology became in the classrooms and how important its role became as well. Its role became an improvement for students and in classrooms. In the classrooms, technology has become a leadership for both teachers and students. They have also improved. Students are able to visualize their studies better. Not only are they can take it home and visualize their work for their studies. They have access to their work even from home to view their work. Technology is also a benefit for teachers because now teachers are able to breakdown their teaching time to educate their students more. Teachers don’t have much time to teach their students in a year, so many of them it’s a great advantage to be able to teach through a power point or as Touro uses a blackboard system. They are able to teach more, and while having more time to teach, they can review more. Students who miss school, it wont be such an issue or trouble for them because they have a great access right at home or even on their smartphones. This is one of many ways technology can be a benefit for students and classrooms. Another advantage of technology in classrooms is that it benefits students who enter college are advanced in the technology skills. I, being a student in high school took computer classes, which helped me in the college world. I was able to even educate teachers in the field. Students including I, feel empowered when we enter the college world. We feel like us, students can educate the teachers and teach them something that they don’t know. Studies are shown that many students are both with digital native. We see even in the newer generations that children, teenagers are very advanced in using phones, computers, the† iWorld† as some people call it. Being advanced in technology for students is a benefit towards their work as well, in research and writing papers. It can also help their work field since many fields have  the use of technology in it. Many studies disagree with technology playing a huge role in classrooms. Technology can be difficult in the classroom environments. It can be very distracting to the students and they cannot do well in their studies and work. It can be distracting to students because they can take advantage of technology being used by bringing in their laptops, and pretending to be doing school work while doing their own twits and Facebook updates, or use of cellphones in class which takes them away from listening and being educated. Even though, these disagreements are litigable, does not mean technology is not beneficial for students. Technology are the new notebooks and pens of the classrooms, a new test taking way, it takes you into many careers. Some say, that teachers respect can be fallen by the use of technology, even though this is a great point there is still a brighter side. Students are able to visualize their studies and work more than just an audio voice of the teacher. Also, the students and their improvements in the classroom.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Writing a Personal Narrative :: Personal Reflection

A narrative is a story. In writing a narrative essay, you share with the reader some personal experience of your own in order to make a point or convey a message. You may choose to tell how your grandfather influenced your desire to become an orthodontist, or perhaps you’ll relate the story of the time you didn’t make the cut for the basketball team. Whatever story you tell, your purpose is to share with others some experience that has taught you something or changed you somehow. Remember that narration is more than just description. Your essay should be descriptive, but it should also emphasize the significance of a particular event, object, or person. There are several components of an effective narrative. The following are some things to keep in mind when writing your essay: Focus Narrative effect is the main point of your story—the moral, the message, the insight you offer. Without a specific narrative effect, your essay is merely a series of unconnected events. If you are unsure what your main point is, you might ask yourself, â€Å"Why am I telling this story? Why should someone else be interested in reading about my experience?† In addition, you must decide whether to reveal your point explicitly (stated directly) or implicitly (suggested but not stated). Development Details add depth and color to your narrative. If your essay consists merely of dry facts, readers quickly grow uninterested. You can describe things through the methods of scene and summary. In the scene method, use very detailed, evocative description to immerse the reader in the situation or place you describe. Your goal is to make the scene come alive for the reader. Usually narratives are based on one or two key scenes. Reserve in-depth detail for these key scenes, and fill in the rest of the story using the method of summary (giving a brief synopsis of events). Organization and Coherence The narrative consists of three basic parts: The orientation, at the beginning of the essay, establishes the setting, characters, and other essential elements of the story. The complication involves rising conflict that leads up to the climax (the point of highest action in the story). Then, in the resolution, the conflict is resolved and the narrative effect is revealed or suggested. Your narrative also needs a time structure. You must decide whether chronological time or psychological time best suits your story. In chronological time, events are described in the order in which they

Thursday, October 24, 2019

High-Tech Education

Using high technology methods in the process of education is a serious matter that a lot of people argue about it, some agree and the others disagree with it. Although it provides the education with a lot of futures that makes it better than the past. It also has some disadvantages that reflect on this process. But they think that old methods that were applied in the classrooms have more benefits than that high tech ones. And some people also consider that these new technology may change the role of both student and teacher to be unlike as usual. One of its disadvantages according to the author's opinion is that it may also distract students and fragment their attention†¦. â€Å"Why am I against using technology in the classroom? Why do I ban laptops in my classroom?. This article by David Cole, a professor of Law at Georgetown University. Was published on 23 of October, 2008,In the Washington Post. The main claims that the author thinking about it may be summarized in some specific points like that he considers that by using these high tech methods in education like internet, laptops and blue ray DVD Players might actually hinder the education not making it better because they make both students and teachers or doctors passive. The author hopes that if classrooms are restored to the Pre-Internet days of wooden tables and chalk. This means taking technology out of the class room and back to â€Å"TEACHING NAKED†. By flying to the purpose of his we can mention that he totally disagrees with this new education system and he agrees strongly with the â€Å"TEACHING NAKED†. Without the aid of any machines just because Dr Jose Bowen thinks that if you have a good PowerPoint presentation it does not mean you have a good lecture. Classroom time should be reserved for discussions with professors, aiming at teaching students to think critically, argue, and raise new questions. Then, by analyzing the author's opinion and his point of view, the pre-internet days of wooden tables and chalk are the most suitable and useful way of learning and educating people because this old technique allows educators to think, work, exert efforts and teaching themselves and never forget what they had, always remember it during applying it in their aily life. Unlike the high-tech learning which provides easy way for learning and just reading not sharing at all, so he just receives the information not work or search for it. And the author provided his theory with slight strong evidences and reasons, than can Be summarized in the following explanation as, a survey that found that 59 percent of students called at least half their lectures boring –particularly those involving power point. Then , he thinks that â€Å"note taking on a laptop encourages verbatim transcription and the note taker tends to go into stenographic mode and no longer processes information in a way that is conducive to the give and take of classroom discussion because of taking notes the old fashioned way , by hand , is so much slower , the student actually has to listen , think and prioritize the most important themes . So as he thinks if one's idea of a lecture is a process by which the notes of the

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Good Mothers Bad Gang

Anita Anderson Dr. Mike Calvert Teenage Wasteland 18, July 2011 Good Mom/Bad Gang Kids on the street, parents that don’t care, looking for a sense of family or belonging; do you see a child at risk? While in some cases this may be true, in many instances this is not the case. In her article â€Å"Mothers, Sons, and The Gangs† Susan Horton tells of three different gang members and their families. Although the families had different backgrounds, beliefs, and techniques they all shared in common sons who were gang members. They are mothers who care but have to face alone the battle of raising their sons in a community lost to gangs. In Horton's article we are introduced to three different families whose sons are involved with gangs. Teresa Rodriguez who still feels foreign and timid about the culture of America. Maggie Garcia who was raised in the same neighborhood as her son and believes that loyalty to the neighborhood is just and understandable. Gayle Thomas Kary, because of financial struggles was thrown into the gang community and fought her best to save her son. These young men were all minors living in a society pressured by gang affiliation. Although their homes had loving mothers their gangs had friends, boldness, acceptance, and a way of life. â€Å"There may be several deep-seated, underling motives for joining gangs: â€Å"Those who join gangs are struggling with the classic, desperate needs of adolescence: for the end of childhood; for acceptance as an adult; for sexual, social and economic identity; for status and success; for respect and a sense of belonging†. Sheldon, Tracy, Brown 77) Not all of these aspects are apparent in gang members but at least one is. In Teresa Rodriguez's case her son at thirteen unbeknown to her belonged to the gang Sur 13. Because of his boldness he was shot and the family home has been victim to drive-bys ever since. The bullet missed his heart and fortunately he survived. Still he did not learn his lesson and claimed that he did not care if he died. Finally his mother threatened to send him to l ive in Mexico if he continued to go out. â€Å"He did not want that, so he stayed inside. But that has not stopped him from dressing or acting like a member of the Sur 13. After the incident of the shooting Rodriguez also found out that all three of her older sons were part of gangs. Her 16-year-old threw away his cholo clothes right when he heard about his brother. He had not been with the gang since then. The two older boys are very repentant, but it is the father had always left rearing the children to the mother he did not have a strong, active, male role model. So, perhaps he felt as if he had no other alternatives. Maggie Garcia also has a son who is a gang member but her view and approach to her son’s affiliation is very different. She was raised in the same neighborhood as she raised her son in; she understands how much the neighborhood could mean. During school her son got into a fight with a rival gang member because each claimed a different neighborhood. Her son was expelled and she felt the principal at his school was upset because my son had stated that he would die for his neighborhood, but if he had said that if he would have died for his country, the principal probably would have given him an award. This mom understood that the danger in the inter-neighborhood conflicts that her son gets into because other family members have been lost to such conflicts. Sadly this is not enough for her to forbid her son from being with his friends. She feels that by doings so would be like her son telling her not to be with her friends. Garcia follows similar problems as the Rodriguez family; she mentions her history and connection to the neighborhood. In this story the father is also absent and the mother supports her son and find it difficult to believe that her son is wrong. She does not have a bad relationship with her son but he receives no discipline or clear-cut parameters from her. She seems to feel that he is loyal to his friends and at times perhaps takes his loyalty a little too far. Garcia seems to adopt the â€Å"boys will be boys† attitude and does not want to believe that her son may be committing crimes or may be with the wrong crowd or may be in a gang. When he was arrested she insisted that he was just in the wrong place at the wrong time. She could not accept that maybe he is doing wrong and that he should have known better than to be in such situations. She tells him to stay out of the fire but her words are not strong enough to keep him out. Although she is not a bad mother, she is not giving her son reason to stay out of gangs. Because she could no longer afford to live in a community where her son had more opportunities and alternatives her son joined the only other thing, the gangs. The story of Gayle Thomas Kary may be the saddest one because the she tried everything and when she finally thought she succeeded her son, Jamee, died as a result of gang violence. Kary did more than the others, discipline, rules and action. When she caught her son cutting up soap to look like cocaine she sent him to his father, perhaps a change of venue would make the difference, but three weeks later, his dad sent him back because he couldn’t control him. She tried reasoning with him telling him â€Å"†¦ fast life goes fast. â€Å"(Horton) When he was arrested for possession of cocaine Kary was highly relieved but to her disappointment he was let out on probation. Kary refused to accept him and he was sentenced to juvenile hall and a youth camp. When he was released he had a probation officer Kary could turn to. Jamee was tired of life on the streets and his probation officer convinced him to turn himself into a youth facility away from Los Angeles. Finally things were turning around and he really seemed to have changed. He was like the child she use to know Unfortunately when she let him go out with his friends to get something to eat he was shot and died. She did everything she could but still she could not save her son's life. Unlike the other two mothers Kary was really able to turn her son Jamee around. She finally made him understand and she can say that his death was an accident. He was not just a number or a statistic of children lost to gang violence. Although, these mothers were, loving they could not help that a major factor was absent from their son’s lives, their fathers. The fathers may have been there but none seemed to take an active role in their children's lives. Parents can make a difference in their children's lives but many times they cannot do it alone. Gangs are not only the problem of the parents it is a problem of society. â€Å"To prevent gangs, society, police, and parents have to work together to keep gangs out of neighborhoods and also to address the existing gang problem†. Ojile) It may be easier to blame the parents but the truth is the parents are not only the ones to blame. We have to realize that in a society where gangs are the neighborhood it could be our son, our daughter, our nephew, etc. that is lost in the gangs. Works Cited Horton, Susan. â€Å"Mother's, Son's and the Gangs. † Los Angeles Times 16 Oct. 19 88. Print. Ojile, Todd. â€Å"Gang Activity in Wichita. † Teenage Wasteland. Baker University, Wichita Campus, Wichita, Kansas. 25 July 2011. Lecture. Shelden, Randall G. , Sharon K. Tracy, and William B. Brown. Youth Gangs in American Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2004. Print.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Name Change for ISIS

Name Change for ISIS Name Change for ISIS Name Change for ISIS By Maeve Maddox English speakers have yet to agree on a word, phrase or acronym to label the terrorist group making news for such atrocities as beheading noncombatants and butchering unarmed prisoners. A few years ago, American journalists started referring to the group that was calling itself â€Å"Al-Dawla Al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham† as ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), but this acronym has proved to be a poor choice; it suggests that the group’s focus is limited to Iraq and Syria. The term al-Sham does not stand for Syria. The English translation of al-Sham is â€Å"the Levant.† Levant came into English from French in the 15th century with the meaning â€Å"East,† (from French lever, â€Å"to rise.†) The region referred to was in the East. The sun rises in the east, ergo, levant (rising), present participle of lever. The Levant is â€Å"the eastern part of the Mediterranean, with its islands and the countries adjoining.† According to one interpretation, the Levant is made up of Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and part of southern Turkey. Others claim that the Levant refers only to Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. The Associated Press has rejected the continued use of ISIS, preferring ISIL (L for Levant) as a more accurate interpretation of al-Sham. John Daniszewski, AP vice president and senior managing editor for international news, says, â€Å"We believe this is the most accurate translation of the group’s name and reflects its aspirations to rule over a broad swath of the Middle East.† Since June 2014, when the terrorist group named a â€Å"caliph† and dropped both Iraq and Levant from its name, ISIL has become less than accurate as a reflection of the group’s aspirations. Referring to themselves as â€Å"the Islamic State† reflects their self-image as a reincarnation of the medieval caliphate founded in the 7th century. The Umayyad caliphate (661-750) conquered lands from Arabia to Spain; their advance into Western Europe in 732 was turned back by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours. The words caliph and caliphate derive from Arabic khilafa, â€Å"succession.† A caliph is seen as the successor of Muhammad. A caliphate is a sovereign state ruled by a caliph under Islamic law (sharia). The office of caliph combines the functions of king and priest. British journalists seem to have decided on the initials IS as a short way of referring to the group without limiting its perceived goals to any particular region of the world. They use the term â€Å"Islamic State† for the first reference in an article and the capitalized initials IS in subsequent references. It seems to me that either ISIL or IS is preferable to ISIS. As a student of mythology and comparative religion, I cringe every time I hear the murderous terrorists referred to by an acronym that sounds like the name of the benign mother goddess Isis. And I sympathize with women like Isis Martinez of Miami who sees people â€Å"recoil in disgust† when she introduces herself these days. Postscript: I just heard an American reporter on NPR refer to the group as IS. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Has vs. Had20 Words Meaning "Being or Existing in the Past"Sentence Adverbs

Monday, October 21, 2019

Measuring Effectiveness of Customer Relationship Management Strategies in Achieving Customer Loyal Essays

Measuring Effectiveness of Customer Relationship Management Strategies in Achieving Customer Loyal Essays Measuring Effectiveness of Customer Relationship Management Strategies in Achieving Customer Loyal Essay Measuring Effectiveness of Customer Relationship Management Strategies in Achieving Customer Loyal Essay Management strategies in achieving customer loyalty A Case Based Study of Nandos UK (Kings Cross Branch) Introduction:Businesses has grown on fast pace in last few decades. This rapid growth in business ha snot only increased the competition but also provided the customers to choose from the products . increased competition and market uncertainty has left organization to think the ways to retain and attract more and more customers. Wining the heats and minds of customers is now the ultimate goals of much organization to earn profitability. Kicaid, 2003) It is because organizations know a satisfied customer can refer many new customers to them with no cost of marketing. Customer relationship Management is concept of delivering best customer services in order to retain customers for long time in other words customer relationship management is name of customer satisfaction that makes customer to buy again and again from same organization. Customer relationship is built and maintained th rough relationship strategies utilizing latest IT concepts that help in delivering better customer services. Increased used of internet and computers has forced organization to invest in IT based applications to not only facilitate their customers but also to use IT application to help customers serve in better way. (Gummesson, 2002) â€Å"CRM is an IT the outcomes of which optimize profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing around customer segments, fostering customer-satisfying behaviours and implementing customer-centric processes†. (Peelan. 2003) Fig (1. 1) CRM Growth trends According to Gartner survey significant growth in spending on CRM in past few years CRM software related investments were $7. 8 billion in 2008 with 14. 4 % increase from previous year. This healthy trend is expected to reach $13. 3 billion by year 2012. The investors remained positive despite economic meltdown Problem Statement;- Achieving customer? s loyalty is long term thing and effects of implementing CRM strategy is not tangible. So it is complex task to effectively measure the Effectiveness of CRM strategy and customer loyalty. Complexity exist when evaluating intangible benefits like loyalty of customer, quality of service, enhancement of value, processes effectiveness, innovation of operation, improving the services Effectiveness of processes, innovation of operation, service improvement, competitiveness, trust, and efficiency etc (Peelan,2003) The most widely used and popular methods for investment evaluations are accounting and financial methods which only depends upon cash flow and counting the customer inflow . These are only suitable for limited type of evaluation of business performance. These accounting methods cannot be effectively used in evaluating investment which is expected to gain benefits in intangible and indirect form. (Righby Landigham, 2004) By evaluating effectiveness of crm strategy a business can be improved on the bases of results and necessary changes can be adopted . CRM implementation also enable customer services department to perform effectively according to their expectation. According to Customer Think Corporation, 68 % of customers leave their seller due to bad customer service experience. So the importance of CRM and its performance evaluation cannot be done/This Poor development Of Marketing Performance measurement is due to complexity in measuring and assessing results from implementing marketing strategies. Especially it is difficult to elaborate impacts on customers of specific strategy (Hanssens, 1999) Objectives:(1) To Critically evaluate theory of CRM strategies and its role in achieving customer loyalty (2) To Analyze current CRM strategies adopted by Nandos UK (3) Evaluation of effectiveness of CRM strategies adopted by Nandos UK (4) To Provide recommendation for effectively implementation of CRM effectiveness measurement Rational Business: The proposed research aims to analyse and assess the impact of CRM in the efficient functioning of the businesses, thus delivering exceptional customer services to its existing and potential customers. It is anticipated that the possible outcome of the proposed study will create a positive business environment by enhancing customer satisfaction and creating further customer service improvement activities and achieving customer loyalty. Academic: The area of the proposed research is CRM. It is an information technology industry term for methodologies and software. This term is used as methodology in IT and software technology, all customer relationship is dealt with the help of internet in an organised way by the enterprise. Using the proposed methodology or looking at it critically might be helpful for students doing research in the similar fields in the future. Literature review: This chapter consist of theories, ideas and concept of different authors, which will support the consider topic, because CRM is very important for the attraction of customer towards organisation. If CRM of the company is improve, then more customers will come as compare to the other competitors. By this way the relationship between organisation and customers maintain. We can say that CRM is the important factor of customer relationship. That CRM is the key to strategic competition needed to keep the focus on customer needs and for a face to face with the customers throughout the organization† (Lin and Su, 2003) Different authors define CRM with different way, in which some have similar concept but different words, as well as some have different concept, some of them are in the following: According to Wilson et, al. (2002 ) that CRM is a technical support and rational tool as well as a set of different skills, process, and different technologies, which help the organisation in making planning? for the all channels of attracting customers, and these all channels have very high influence on each other? s as well as high attraction with each others. On the other hand O? Mulley and Mitussis (2002) say that CRM is very beneficial and persuasive. On the other hand Olsen states that mostly companies show loyalty for the satisfaction of the customers as well as making different kind of strategies and improving company/organisation performance. All techniques and skills are used for the satisfaction of organisation, because customers are the basics units of business. The skills, rules and regulations are according to the choice as well as need and want of customers. According to the Lin and Sue (2003) that component if CRM is exceptionally vital for the understanding of relationship of the customer? s questions, complains as well as practice of the business. The factors of the CRM is basically related to the activity of organisation and customers contacts, the contacts may be customers complains or feedback. On the other hand technologies play very important rule in the CRM, because technology used in the system as a facility in CRM for customer satisfaction. The development of CRM is not new for the organisation, but they are developing system from the beginning According to Payne (2006) the CRM of old age was engage same like the modern, but the difference was only technology. But the difference is that the modern strategy is according to the modern customers marketing strategy, because to make easy the approach of customers to the organisation. Wilson et, al. (2002)â€Å"The assumptions of customers in CRM, is not different from the transactions between company and customers† this basically means that customers have direct relationship with customers, which require the organisation. The trust of customers essential for the success of organisation, therefore they need clear vision about the organisation policies, and offers etc, so for this purpose organisation need to well define about every product as well as develop ethical qualities must be highlighted. The idea of wine shows that CRM is very close to the characterization of CRM (business strategy) which states â€Å"The customer service needs to receive the status of high priority in the organisational environment†. CRM is significant from the usiness point of view, because it will make people mind clear for the business; in simple it will give simple and clear vision to customers about the services, products, and customers strategy. By this way company will keep long term relationship with customers. In term of business strategy CRM we can say that it is section of the market and competitive advantages by increasing the trust and satisfaction of the customers or client is hard to evaluate. It is a co mplex strategy, because of the different behaviours of he people (Roger, 2003). According to O? Malley and Mitussus (2003) in fact the customers are relatively new to the marketing agent that controlling in mass market which directed to strategic considerations relationship. This is essential for the every organisation to understand the strategy of the CRM. According to Winter (2001) that every business strategy must be in relation to what customers tastes. Bellow given three metrics are important for observation of CRM in relation to marketing strategy (Li and Croteau 2003). 1) Customers retention (2) Customer satisfaction (3) Customer profitability These play key role in the CRM, but the adaptation of these are possible only by the help of higher management presented as essential for execution with success of Customer relationship management. If, not take serious in organisation then this will affect the whole organisation, which cause the resistance of customers. According to Cro teau and Li, (2003) that knowledge management also affect the impact of CRM. According to the (McKenna, 1993) stated that a strong CRM strategy should be effectively plan which keep accountability of needs and opinion of the customers, keeping in mind the time and the length of their relationship with oragnization (Ahn, 2003) satisfying customers needs are the key purpose of developing the CRM strategy. The technological system of CRM is very important in collecting information from the customers about the organisation (oragnization) and same is conveying of information to the customers about the sale, new products and movement of the market. (Reicheld, 1993). Oragnization also improve strategy with help of customers complains and feedback. On the basis of customers information oragnization improve the relations with customers (Reicheld 1993). Methodology: This section explains the research ideology, concept and method applied, integrated with a data overview, essential for deriving the final conclusions of the research study. Research Philosophy: There are two principal philosophies in the research process that are dealt with. Either the optimistic approach based on the concept of objectivity and scientific method, where approximation can be generalized and truly emulate the real phenomena. Saunders et al. (2000)stated that, the researcher presume the task of an objective, independent examine and will be supported by methodology which will allow imitation and generalisation of the data. Or In contrast, phenomenologist philosophy argues that the difficulty of phenomenon, which can be applied to the social and the business world, cannot be concentrated to generalisations. Indeed, ideas and situations influenced by individuals and other factors are all unique, and as such need to be analysed for gaining the clearer picture behind them. Thus, as discussed by Wilson (1999), this view can be said to be the basis of interpretative research, where social reality is explored in its natural settings. The two philosophies are not fundamentally mutually exclusive In spite of being peculiar and seen as to be adapted for individual channels of research. The rank taken in research is dependent on the nature of the question to be explored. In order to reflect the most persistent and compelling reality, a distinct study on the flexibility is needed. Besides, as Saunders et al. 2000) argue, management-related research can be in practice a mixture of both philosophies. In this research, phenomenological philosophy will be adopted as it aims to answer research questions that are highlight in a social atmosphere, based on opinions, views and the assessment of industry experts and customers. Research Approach: There are three types of research strategy Inductive v/s deductive, qualitative v/s quantities and cross sectional v/s longit udinal. Mixed approach will be adopted in the research. The Qualitative research tools containing unstructured interview questioners which is design for collecting data material and research to meet the objective in finding answer for research questions. The Quantitative research tool contain of self designed questionnaires that be sanded through using the email or by post to prospective respondent. Research Strategy: The strategy is sensible base that contracts the way of answers the research questions of the study and present it like a plan which include objectives as well as data sources and takes into accounts the limitation that may occur in growth of the research study. So according to my result I will use mixture of research techniques to attain my required objective, for secondary and primary research so I m using the mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data collection method: A choice of methods of research will be adopted in proposed study. Executive form Nandos UK would be personally contacted and through the internet to request for the related information via emails. Questionnaires would be sent to the managers of different branches and be requested to fill in, which would certainly help in study. My study will be a combination of questionnaire, interviews, direct observation, physical artefact and discussions. Because it is entail for the development of a conceptual and theoretical structure prior to apply any research instrument. Though data collecting qualitatively do not help in a huge way for theory building but it is helpful in concept of the theory with more confidence. As a result it is a combination of both qualitative and quantitative approach. In my study, I will try to use theory as a basis and channel. Each tool, method or technique has its own strengths and weaknesses. As a result it can be said that research methods and strategies are not isolated from each other. So, I can use mixture of research techniques. To achieve my desired objectives I will be using a mix of qualitative and quantitative technique, which involves both secondary and primary research. Data source: keeping research Objective in mind secondary data will be collect throughout internet, journals and publication etc. I will try to collecting secondary data from all resources of non human. I will be using online database, journals and attain books. Sample selection and Sample size: Considering random sampling which consists on the selection of samples to generalise the findings, over a broader population. 15-20 samples will be used in the proposed research this will help to develops in claims and give technique to improve theories to clarify the population characteristics. In view of both type of purposive sampling focused. Qualitative sampling is considered as best method to apply in current research strategy. This strategy allow to me to choose the persons and data obtainable to meet the objectives. Sample method: According to my research study I will be implement the method of purposive sampling. For my research the non-probability sampling is chosen because it is based on achievement and awareness of certain situation. Sampling follows the qualitative research approach since it merge with objective of responding to study query and don? t Conway the outcomes into statistical generality. It was also helpful in quick manner to achieve a precise target sample. Data analysis: In context of proposed study, data analysis is important because the information collected is both quantitative and qualitative. The data collected will be statistically analysed using manual methods, easy tabulation and statistic like indicator of average or frequency count in the form of table and figure will be presented. Ethical Issues: In ethical issue involve conduct surveys the research activity is vital importance to judge the ethical implication. The reason of importance that proficient societies have urbanized code of ethics to cover-up range of proficient issues surrounding research activities in this situation of proposed study i will be need to ethical approval from Nandos UK. Formal permission will be required prior to arrange data collection and all necessary caution will be taken to make sure respect for participant because independent agent. To avoid plagiarism, I will be very careful while using any other person? s idea opinion or different peoples written or spoken words. Any drawings, graphs, statistics, facts or any pieces of information which is not ordinary information, if I want to use other work I will give credit to that person by quoting his name and giving proper reference to it. Credibility and Validity: The credibility of results arises in a particular manner being a qualitative research. Questioned by scientific research, the process of gathering and analysing the data, as well as the kind of information, needs to reflect consistency and accuracy. To support this research study, the previously discussed methods and approach were considered essential to achieve the research findings. Reliability: In terms of reliability, the author of this study affirms that the results would relatively be the same if administered on different occasions by other researchers as long as the sampling is taken from the same area. In this sense if the study were to take place with an emphasis on Nandos UK? customers. Generalizability: As this study is generalizable to all other organization working in similar sector. However, some limitation to the proposed study is that the study will be carried out only in the Nandos specifically Kings cross branch. Therefore the findings can be applied universally if consider. Data Access: To study the phenomenon of research question and to answer them a mixture of two types of information was required which is primary and secondary. In this way the primary data consist of the statistics of survey-questionnaires implemented on economy class traveller. This strategy was selected to optimize the sampling group information, which helps to form opinions about the organization regarding quality performance including the reviews from the customers about the quality of service and their effectiveness in Customer Relationship Management. Issues such as contentment and devotedness will be needed to evaluate the previous information. The survey questionnaire model will help researchers to maintain a list of concern issues and standardised questions for the sampling group, in order to make comparison and achieve consistent findings. Ultimately the survey questionnaire will be determined on collecting qualitative data on this customer group? s attitude and behaviours. (Sunders et, al. 2000) argues that the tools are used in descriptive studies as this proposed study. The main purpose of this dissertation is to identify the research questions and solutions to the questions. The survey questionnaire mock-up allowed the researcher to have an arranged list of issues and areas to cover as standardised questions for the sample group, in order to compare all the samples and achieve consistent findings. Mainly this survey questionnaire will be focused on collection of qualitative data on this customer group? s attitude and behaviours. Quantitatively, these meanings and findings will be measured so as to reach a consistent consensus of the data and prove the point taken as the research problem of the dissertation. Whereas, the secondary data comprises mainly narrative information. This encompasses the literature research carried on CRM, and its functions to achieve consumer loyalty; it also accompanies magazines, journals, newspapers relevant research studies. Timetable and special resources required In order to accomplish the proposed project in the given time available the following time table is prepared as a critical path depicting each stage of the study in relation to the time frame in weeks Tasks Week One Week Tow Week Three Week Four Week Fifth Week Sixth Week Seventh Week Eight Week Nine Week Ten Week Eleven Twelve Problem classification Literature Review Research Methodology Data compilation Data examination Writing up draft Editing closing Documentation Binding of document Budget: As discussed above in methodology about collection of data and interviewing individuals, will cost a bit of money which is listed below.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Useful Generic List in VB.NET

The Useful Generic List in VB.NET Generics extend the power and flexibility of VB.NET in a lot of areas, but you get a bigger performance benefit and more programming options in the generic List object [List(Of T)] than with any other. To use List(Of T), you have to understand how to implement the many methods that the .NET Framework provides. Below are three examples using ForEach, FindAll, and Sort, that demonstrates how the generic List class works. The very first step is to create a generic List. You can get the data in a lot of ways, but the simplest is to just Add it. The code below shows how to classify my beer and wine collection! Starting Code There first needs to be an object that will represent a bottle from the collection. In a Windows Forms application, the Form class has to first be in a file or the Visual Studio designer wont work correctly, so put this at the end: Public Class Bottle Public Brand As String Public Name As String Public Category As String Public Size As Decimal Public Sub New( _ ByVal m_Brand As String, _ ByVal m_Name As String, _ ByVal m_Category As String, _ ByVal m_Size As Decimal) Brand m_Brand Name m_Name Category m_Category Size m_Size End Sub End Class To build the collection, Add the items. This is whats in the Form Load event: Dim Cabinet As List(Of Bottle) _ New List(Of Bottle) Cabinet.Add(New Bottle( _ Castle Creek, _ Uintah Blanc, _ Wine, 750)) Cabinet.Add(New Bottle( _ Zion Canyon Brewing Company, _ Springdale Amber Ale, _ Beer, 355)) Cabinet.Add(New Bottle( _ Spanish Valley Vineyards, _ Syrah, _ Wine, 750)) Cabinet.Add(New Bottle( _ Wasatch Beers, _ Polygamy Porter, _ Beer, 355)) Cabinet.Add(New Bottle( _ Squatters Beer, _ Provo Girl Pilsner, _ Beer, 355)) All of the above code is standard code in VB.NET 1.0. However, note that by defining your own Bottle object, you get the benefits of multiple types in the same collection (in this case, both String and Decimal) and efficient, type safe late binding. ForEach Example The fun starts when we use the methods. To begin, lets implement the familiar ForEach method. The Microsoft documentation includes this usage syntax definition: Dim instance As List Dim action As Action(Of T) instance.ForEach(action) Microsoft further defines action as delegate to a method that performs an action on the object passed to it. The elements of the current List(T) are individually passed to the Action(T) delegate. Tip: For more on delegates, read Using Delegates in Visual Basic .NET for Runtime Flexibility. The first thing you need to code is the method that will be delegated. Misunderstanding this one key point is the source of most of the confusion of VB.NET students. This function, or subroutine, is where all of the customized coding for the Of type objects is done. When performed correctly, youre essentially done. Its really simple in this first example. An entire instance of the Bottle is passed and the subroutine selects anything needed out of it. Coding the ForEach itself is simple too. Just fill in the address of the delegate using the AddressOf method. Sub displayBottle(ByVal b As Bottle) ResultList.Items.Add( _ b.Brand ) ResultList.Items.Add(-) Cabinet.ForEach(AddressOf displayBottle) End Sub FindAll Example FindAll is a little more complicated. The Microsoft documentation for FindAll looks like this: Dim instance As List Dim match As Predicate(Of T) Dim returnValue As List(Of T) returnValue instance.FindAll(match) This syntax includes a new element, Predicate(Of T). According to Microsoft, this will represent the method that defines a set of criteria and determines whether the specified object meets those criteria. In other words, you can create any code that will find something in the list. I coded my Predicate(Of T) to find anything in the Beer Category. Instead of calling the delegate code for each item in the list, FindAll returns an entire List(T) containing only the matches that result from your Predicate(Of T). Its up to your code to both define this second List(T) and do something with it. My code just adds the items to a ListBox. Private Sub FindAllButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles FindAllButton.Click ResultList.Items.Clear() ResultList.Items.Add(FindAll Example) ResultList.Items.Add(-) Dim sublist As List(Of Bottle) sublist Cabinet.FindAll(AddressOf findBeer) For Each r As Bottle In sublist ResultList.Items.Add( _ r.Brand - _ r.Name - _ r.Category - _ r.Size) Next End Sub Function findBeer(ByVal b As Bottle) _ As Boolean If (b.Category Beer) Then Return True Else Return False End If End Function Sort Example The final method this article examines is Sort. Again, Microsoft uses some terminology you might not be familiar with. There are actually four different overloads of the Sort method: Sort()Sort(IComparer(T))Sort(Comparison(T))Sort(Int32, Int32, IComparer(T)) This lets you use sort methods defined in the .NET Framework for the list, code your own, use a system defined comparison for the type, or sort part of the collection using a starting position and count parameter. In this example, since I use the following syntax to actually perform the sort, Im using the third overload. x.Name.x.Name.CompareTo(y.Name)(y.Name) Ive coded another delegate to my own comparer. Since I want to sort by my Name, I pull just that value out of each instance of the Bottle object that is passed and use the Sort(Comparison(Of (T))). The Sort method actually rearranges the original List(T). Thats what is processed after the method is executed. Private Sub SortButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles SortButton.Click ResultList.Items.Clear() ResultList.Items.Add(Sort Example) ResultList.Items.Add(-) Cabinet.Sort(AddressOf sortCabinet) For Each r As Bottle In Cabinet ResultList.Items.Add( _ r.Name - _ r.Brand - _ r.Category - _ r.Size) Next End Sub Private Shared Function sortCabinet( _ ByVal x As Bottle, ByVal y As Bottle) As Integer Return x.Name.CompareTo(y.Name) End Function These methods were selected to demonstrate the major ways that the Framework methods in List(T) are actually coded. Theres a whole raft of other methods, however. Thats what makes List(T) so useful!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Security in the age of globlisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Security in the age of globlisation - Essay Example fight’ of realist, liberal and constructionist research programmes, the latter had been discussed with major focus on its social and economic processes. Since globalization is a spatial progress, it does not accommodate the principles of interdependence. Globalization materializes the circulation and interpenetration of people and ideas along with its material exchanges across cultures. The private and public spheres merge and collide in such an environment. Unlike in the case of economic and social aspects of globalization, the effects of security are harder to conceptualize and measure. It has to be analyzed and comprehended in contrast with the Cold War effects on security. The agency and scope of threat in the globalized world has grown out of all expectations that terms like global violence and human security has become common parlance. The security constituencies are defined at every level from the global to the regional to the individual. While the security providers remain nationally defined, the dimensions of threat in the international sphere have grown much beyond its aegis. However the scope of security is also widened in the age of globalization, since the post Cold War security precepts expand beyond national constrictions. The issues that are brought under such expanded security comprise diseases, global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, bio-diversity loss and radioactive contamination. The ‘skill revolution’ among prospective terrorists has begun to pose a great threat as well. On a general societal level, despite the changing norms of security, globalization has made people both more aware and less decisive about intervent ion in ethnic conflicts. Non-Physical Security is the novel concept that had originated from globalization. When the existing security concepts are expanded to protection of information and technology assets, it gains a non-physical status. This includes greater information technology and smartness of weapons. Selling

Friday, October 18, 2019

Pepsi Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Pepsi - Research Paper Example The next unit is PepsiCo Asia, Middle East, and Africa (MEA), that includes all snacks, beverages, and food businesses in the region. Lastly, there is Pepsi Europe that includes all snacks, beverages, and food businesses in Europe. The company units comprise of the six segments: AMEA, FLNA, LAF, QFNA, PAB, and Europe. Operations of the company are in United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, and Mexico, with headquarters in Purchase, New York, in the US. Recent acquisitions by the company include complete acquisition of Pepsi Bottling Company in February 2010, and Mabel in Brazil (Mabel produces snacks, cookies, and crackers). Environmental Uncertain PepsiCo lacks vital information concerning the environment, specifically those elements with which the company interacts with like its stakeholders, the population, and others. The most crucial external factor that affects the company is competition from its rival, the Coca Cola Company. Other factors include economic force that inc orporate economic cycles and inflation, political changes in its operation region, regulations changes, technology, and social changes. Pepsi Co Environmental risk expectations PEP acknowledges the stiff competition from rival Coca Cola, which is threatening to creep in and steal the market share of the company. Other risks include vulnerability to changes in economic in its operation base, which may affect the purchasing influence of customers to its products, inflation rates that have been rising consistently affecting its market operation and cost of production. There are also risks of changes in political climate in its market, which may affect its business operations like limitation of quantity of snacks into those regions, and legal changes that may affect some of the legislations associated with its success, or probable addition of more regulations (Daft & Marcic 367). Other concerns arise from the current Europe debt crisis that may have a profound effect on its Europe busin esses, possible changes in laws and regulation that regards beverage bottling, recycling of the bottles, and the packaging material, the company’s capability in managing its brands and business segments properly, and the ultimate goal of maintaining a good corporate image. There is also the issue of environmental conservation, and the probable effects of climate change globally that may affect the company’s raw materials supply. Environmental Statement As a multinational global business, the company relies on natural resources from the earth. In line with expansion strategy of the business in developed and subsequent expansion in developing and other emerging countries, the company strives to use production tolls and methods that are scientifically proven as economically sound and socially responsible to the environment. PEP is committed in its effort to protect earth’s natural resources by innovative use of energy, land, water, and packaging in all its operatio ns. Company stability Being the world’s largest snack food company, and second in producing soft drinks, PEP has established itself as a stable company in the multinationals world. The company has 18 strong brands, whose combined annual sales pass one billion dollars. More than 40% of the company’s sales originate from outside the US. The company maintains

Social and environmental sustainability v financial sustainability Essay

Social and environmental sustainability v financial sustainability - Essay Example Such is a sustainable society (Schaltegger, Bennett and Burritt, 2006). Therefore, sustainability refers to an ideal towards which we strive and against which we weigh our proposed plans, actions, expenditures and decisions. Sustainability is a means of looking at a society in the broadest sense possible in terms of space and time. Every community has its different social, economic and environmental systems that make the pursuit of sustainability a local endeavour depending on the systems surrounding the particular community. Every society has its unique concerns and needs, and the quantity, quality, balance, and the importance of these matters is unique. The term sustainability can be defined differently depending on the context and the discipline in which the word is being used. In a more general dimension, sustainability can be taken to refer to the endurance of processes and systems (Del Bo and Bignami, 2014). Therefore, social and environmental sustainability refers to the persistence of the social and environmental systems and processes. Financial sustainability refers to the persistence of the economic processes and systems as applied to the business environment. The sustainable development forms the organizing principle for sustainability. The movement towards sustainability presents a social challenge that involves national and international law, transport and urban planning, individual and local lifestyles alongside ethical consumerism. There are varied ways in which corporations and individuals strive to live sustainably (Staicu and Feleaga, 2013). These may take the form of reappraising the economic sectors, reorganizing the living conditions, the use of science to create technologies, reappraising o work practices and the adjustment of individual lifestyles. Despite the increased use of the term sustainability, the attainment of environmental

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Stress and Immunity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Stress and Immunity - Essay Example Numerous empirical findings in animals and humans substantiate linkage between physical and psychological types of stress and immunological adjustments. Adjustments in the immune response have been reported to go with bereavement, unemployment, coping with phobia, divorce, work-related stress, examinations, exercise, etc (Rice 2000). This essay discusses comprehensively the relationship between stress and immunity. The first section gives an overview of such relationship; the second presents a brief discussion of the cultural and social influences on stress and immunity; the third focuses on the relationship between stress and schizophrenia, with a discussion of policy and practice implications; and last sums up the entire discourse. Stress and Immunity The assumption that stress can increase the likelihood of acquiring physical illnesses is not completely unknown. Proofs that stress can bring about physical ailment started to build up in the 1930s (Edworthy 2000). The term ‘ps ychosomatic disease’— actual physical illnesses that were believed to be brought about, to a certain extent, by psychological aspects like stress-- was known far and wide. The common psychosomatic ailments were asthma, tension headaches, peptic ulcers, eczema, and high blood pressure (Rice 2000, 64). These illnesses were not considered as ‘unreal’ physical diseases. The concept of ‘psychosomatic’ has usually been used wrongly to denote physical illnesses that are ‘imagined,’ but that is a completely distinct set of symptoms (Rice 2000, 64). Instead, according to Lovallo (2005), psychosomatic illnesses were regarded as ‘real’ untreated problems that were profoundly caused by stress. The term ‘psychosomatic’ illness has slowly been neglected since the 1970s because studies have reported that stress can heighten the development of a wide range of other illnesses previously assumed to be wholly caused by phys iological factors. Hence, it has become evident that psychosomatic illnesses should not be given a specific classification since there is nothing unusual about them (Rice 2000). However, numerous findings show that experimentally stimulated stress can weaken immunity of animals. To be exact, stressors like restrictions, shock, congesting, and food limit weaken different features of immune responses in animal subjects (Steckler, Kalin, & Reul 2005). Apparently, according to Ayers and colleagues (2007), stress can also have an effect on the immune responses of animals in natural environments. Chronic diseases have a harmful effect on immune responses and stress makes the capabilities of individuals to cope with these diseases much worse. Segerstrom and Miller (2004), in a comprehensive evaluation of three decades of empirical work on stress and immunity, report that constant stress can weaken ‘humoral immune response’ which defend the body from bacteria and other extracel lular pathogens, and ‘cellular immune responses’ which defend the body from viruses and other intracellular pathogens (as cited in Ayers, Baum, McManus 2007, 168). Moreover, according to Ayers and colleagues (2007), they conclude that the length of a stressful episode is a major aspect establishing its effect on immune responses. As stated by Steckler and colleagues (2005), lifelong stressors, like looking after a gravely ailing loved one or long-term joblessness, are

At the Core of Jewish Belief Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

At the Core of Jewish Belief - Essay Example Just as the other cultures themselves have faced, the Jewish population through history has too faced strife and sacrifice that has greatly impacted the past, present, as well as future for them. As for the development of Judaism, the, "Hebrew religion began to give rise to Judaism after the destruction of the temple and the exile of Judah in 586 BC," ("Judaism" p.1). As many would come to know after the end of World War II, Jewish citizens were often referred to in derogatory means as being 'a Jew'. While the person in fact would have been of Jewish decent, the casual throwing out of the label of them being Jewish by extent served as a way to demean and diminish the societal value of a culture and precious belief system. Further elaborating, "The term 'Jew', in its biblical use, is almost exclusively postexilic. The Jewish religion of the biblical period evolved through such historical stages as the intertestamental, rabbinic, and medieval to the modern period of the nineteenth century with Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism," ("Judaism" p.1). Like Christians and Muslims, Jewish people as well have a tenant system of faith. According to the Elwell Evangelical Dictionary of M R Wilson, found at the bottom of the previously used source, modern Jewish faith believers are shaped by the following tenants; (1) Man is pivotal in the universe. He sees himself as a partner with God in the unending process of creation. In rabbinic thought, "God needs man as much as man needs God." (2) Man is a responsible moral agent, fully accountable for his acts. He is free to shape his own destiny. (3) Human progress is possible as man realizes the great potential within him. The nature of man is basically good, or neutral, free from the encumbrance of original sin. Thus man may be optimistic and hopeful about his future. (4) "This-worldliness" is a distinguishing mark of Judaism. The Hebrew Scriptures focus more on earth and man than upon heaven and God. Hence, lengthy speculation about the afterlife and otherworldly realities has never occupied a major position in Jewish thought. (5) All of life must be regarded as sacred. Man is to seek to imitate God in sanctifying his every action. Time must be imbued with the seeds of eternity.(6) Man is to pursue peace, justice, and righteousness. Salvation is dependent upon the betterment of society through good deeds. Historically, Jews have seen the Messiah as God's anointed human representative (not a God-man) who would usher in a golden age of societal and spiritual redemption. Today, however, Reform Judaism teaches that the Messianic Age will appear when humankind collectively, by its acts, reaches a level of true enlightenment, peace and justice. (Wilson Evangelical). One of the founding premises for belief is what most has come to know as the Ten Commandments. It is these ten 'rules' that act as a way to show people what they should and should not do.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Stress and Immunity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Stress and Immunity - Essay Example Numerous empirical findings in animals and humans substantiate linkage between physical and psychological types of stress and immunological adjustments. Adjustments in the immune response have been reported to go with bereavement, unemployment, coping with phobia, divorce, work-related stress, examinations, exercise, etc (Rice 2000). This essay discusses comprehensively the relationship between stress and immunity. The first section gives an overview of such relationship; the second presents a brief discussion of the cultural and social influences on stress and immunity; the third focuses on the relationship between stress and schizophrenia, with a discussion of policy and practice implications; and last sums up the entire discourse. Stress and Immunity The assumption that stress can increase the likelihood of acquiring physical illnesses is not completely unknown. Proofs that stress can bring about physical ailment started to build up in the 1930s (Edworthy 2000). The term ‘ps ychosomatic disease’— actual physical illnesses that were believed to be brought about, to a certain extent, by psychological aspects like stress-- was known far and wide. The common psychosomatic ailments were asthma, tension headaches, peptic ulcers, eczema, and high blood pressure (Rice 2000, 64). These illnesses were not considered as ‘unreal’ physical diseases. The concept of ‘psychosomatic’ has usually been used wrongly to denote physical illnesses that are ‘imagined,’ but that is a completely distinct set of symptoms (Rice 2000, 64). Instead, according to Lovallo (2005), psychosomatic illnesses were regarded as ‘real’ untreated problems that were profoundly caused by stress. The term ‘psychosomatic’ illness has slowly been neglected since the 1970s because studies have reported that stress can heighten the development of a wide range of other illnesses previously assumed to be wholly caused by phys iological factors. Hence, it has become evident that psychosomatic illnesses should not be given a specific classification since there is nothing unusual about them (Rice 2000). However, numerous findings show that experimentally stimulated stress can weaken immunity of animals. To be exact, stressors like restrictions, shock, congesting, and food limit weaken different features of immune responses in animal subjects (Steckler, Kalin, & Reul 2005). Apparently, according to Ayers and colleagues (2007), stress can also have an effect on the immune responses of animals in natural environments. Chronic diseases have a harmful effect on immune responses and stress makes the capabilities of individuals to cope with these diseases much worse. Segerstrom and Miller (2004), in a comprehensive evaluation of three decades of empirical work on stress and immunity, report that constant stress can weaken ‘humoral immune response’ which defend the body from bacteria and other extracel lular pathogens, and ‘cellular immune responses’ which defend the body from viruses and other intracellular pathogens (as cited in Ayers, Baum, McManus 2007, 168). Moreover, according to Ayers and colleagues (2007), they conclude that the length of a stressful episode is a major aspect establishing its effect on immune responses. As stated by Steckler and colleagues (2005), lifelong stressors, like looking after a gravely ailing loved one or long-term joblessness, are

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Project management performance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project management performance - Essay Example These shortcomings increase the confounding effects of the productivity variables measured and analyzed. The figures calculated for each of the variables of productivity (factor productivity ratios) over a period of time can be systematically plotted to identify and predict a trend that shows change in productivity. The figures for each variable can be monitored individually or collectively with other variables. To monitor productivity over a period of one year productivity metrics for each month have to be calculated. The change in productivity (trend) between one month and another or across the 12 months can be identified by simply calculating the difference in the productivity metrics. The trend can be graphically represented by plotting the productivity metric over a period of year. Fig 1 shows a trend for multifactor (labor and capital) productivity ratio calculated for the months of January is 0.560, February 0.585, March 0.615, April 0.616, May 0.610, June 0.623, July 0.623, August 0.634, September 0.598, October 0.590, November 0.589 and December 0.590. Also for the trend ident ified to be more meaningful, the variable(s) plotted must be compared with productivity of other firms with factors similar to the one in question. This can be done by comparing the productivity metrics with external benchmarks. The last bar in Fig 1 represents the benchmark for similar (small catering/restaurants service). The operation manager of the food service unit can therefore comparatively monitor performance of the unit. The work of the operation manager can be made simpler if s/he uses Microsoft Project application to measure and monitor schedule performance of staff and inputs (monetized resources). This application will allow the manager to handle large variety of data and to (intra) extrapolate outcomes. The operation managers can use the information (factor

The American Dream Essay Example for Free

The American Dream Essay What is the American Dream? The American Dream is an idea people have that they can have happy and successful lives if they work hard enough. Since the Mayflower brought over the first settlers, America has attracted people all over the world to relocate to our country just to start a new and free life. They all had a dream, something we call the â€Å"American Dream†. We may think the American Dream doesn’t mean much but for some it could mean everything. The American Dream can mean different things to each individual. For example, in the novel Of Mice and Men by Steinbeck, George and Lennie mentioned that they wanted to live on the fat of the land. This was their dream because George doesn’t want anybody around telling him what to do and Lennie wants to tend many of his own rabbits. Whereas, in the nonfiction story Of Plymouth Plantation written by Bradford, the pilgrims are brought to America to seek better lives. They wanted to escape religious persecution. Their dream was to be able to worship God and find land to own. America is known as the land of opportunity. People from other countries dream of bringing their families to the United States of America. They just want to own their own home and have stable jobs. We Americans don’t realize how lucky we are to be free. Other countries would give up anything to be given the opportunity to come here. The desire among many parents is for their children to lead happy lives. This is especially for immigrants because many of them left their home countries die to difficult living conditions. Although the concept of the American Dream is well known most people don’t realize how long it’s been around. Back in the 1900’s it was about being free and treated equal. Being free and treated equal meant more to African Americans because they were done with being so discriminated against. They worked so much harder than whites and got little to nothing in return. For example, Langston Hughes’ poem, â€Å"I, Too, Sing, America† is about an African American that gets mistreated. He has to eat dinner away from everyone else when company comes over. He finally plans to stand up for himself by eating at the table no matter what anyone says. His dream was to be free of racism and treated equal. Now days, it’s difficult for people to capture their American Dream. The economy has gotten so bad overtime to where people have to get more than one job to bring in enough income. In reality, your income decides your way of living which is utterly ridiculous. Money shouldn’t have to play such a big role in our lives. I think one job should be enough to buy all the necessities and then some but, unfortunately its not. My mom has 3 jobs with loads of stress piled on her shoulders and it’s still not enough to 100% support us. Her American Dream shouldn’t be about having less stress and more money but should be about her living a happy stable financial life. In other words, the American Dream can mean so many different things but in the end it all related in some way. Everyone wants to be successful with no worries. Not everyone is as lucky as us Americans to have a dream that we at least have an opportunity to achieve. People all over the world dream about coming to America for better lives. If you try hard enough, you may be lucky enough to achieve your dream.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Networked Game Issues

Networked Game Issues Network Issues and how they affect gameplay and interactivity A network is when two or more computers have a digital connection between them, particular in networked multiplayer games the players are physically separated from each other. Networks allow users clients to communicate by sending bits of data through the internet of the form of packets, these will then build on top of the internet protocol, and this in terms means that if a packet sent using UDP or TCP a specific IP address then receives the packet. (Armitage, Claypool and Branch, 2006) Unlike networking in this day and age games such as Doom was played through a LAN connection (Local Area Network) which at the time used an IPX protocol. An IPX protocol doesnt require a constant connection between the exchanges of packets.[o1] Appendix [a1] displays the required layers of hardware and software that Doom required to be run across a network. The Topologies that Doom used for LAN connection, the figure on left in appendix [a2] is an Ethernet connection that has computers connected to it acting as peers and the figure on the right also in appendix [a2] is similar to the left figure. All players received a message every 35th of a second that recorded all the players inputs across peer-to-peer network. (Armitage, Claypool and Branch, 2006) Packets are carried all over the internet using networks(Armitage, Claypool and Branch, 2006), the time it takes to send a packet of data from a source to its destination is latency, as standard latency will below 150ms (milliseconds) and wont go above 150ms. A packet must then travel back to the source which results in a round trip time which can take twice as long as the latency i.e. 50ms latency 100ms round trip time. The game world of warcraft consists of two latencies a home and a world latency, home is the connection to the realm server which can include in game chat data, world refers to the world of warcraft servers this in term transmit all other data i.e. combat, nearby players (even if they are not on a users screen and NPCs. The latency will increase greatly when visiting highly populated areas because so much data is being transmitted. In online games there are many common issues that will cause high ping and latency these could involve wireless issues, packet loss, down load speed, firewalls, routers that arent configured correctly i.e. closed ports, QoS and Traffic management where packet queuing is being performed and net link saturation (an issue caused by a users ISP that causes connection issues between a users client and a game server). Congestion is usually the main source of packet jitter, depending if the network has been provisioned correctly congestion can occur at the router interface, in a provider or a carrier network. A User has access to the router, therefore it is the easiest and best place to start in determining jitter at the router end; to track down the source of the jitter depends entirely on the encapsulation.[o2] (Ankit, 2012)Latency in online multiplayer games can change due to jitter where different paths are chosen constantly during streams of traffic. While online gaming a high speed internet connection is recommended to avoid jitter preferably using an Ethernet cable to reduce latency because it is almost immune to interference. Packet Loss usually has four main causes that will occur these are congestion, device performance, software issues on a device, faulty hardware[o3]; the first one being link congestion is when a users data needs to be transferred across many devices and links, a link can be at full capacity when the data arrives at must wait before being sent also called queuing. A network device may start to discard information when it doesnt have enough room for data to queue, information being discarded will most likely never be noticed by the user, many applications can easily discard information and still easily handle data queuing. A users router may not be able to keep up with the traffic that is being transferred; this could be due to a switch, firewall or closed ports. Opening ports on a router allows a networked device connected to the router accessible from outside of the local network i.e. other computers and network devices, this benefits gaming greatly where other players can send and receive data with hardly any interference, usually if a port is closed for a certain game a users gaming experience will suffer. Apparently a routers firmware can cause packet loss during gaming according to Netgear community forum, a user was experiencing severe packet loss across many games and after trying altering game settings, router settings and calling his ISP provider multiple times ended up calling Netgear where they recommended using an older firmware on his router and solved his packet loss problem. [o4] Software on a networked device can cause packet loss if the software hasnt been configured correctly, these bugs can usually be found using a system log or troubleshooting. While software can cause issues so can faulty hardware and cabling resulting in more packet loss, Bandwidth is measured in bits per second, modern day network devices can possibly support up to billions of bits worth of data rates. Slow internet connection is a common cause of low bandwidth, this can be insufficient bandwidth provided by an ISP. In normal terms bandwidth is when a connection has a limited amount of data that can be transferred. Not only does a slow internet connection cause low bandwidth but there are other causes that can happen within a house hold i.e. streaming videos on demand via Netflix or any other on demand provider, downloading files from the internet or in the context of games that require numerous large updates; while these can affect the bandwidth any user that has a home security system which needs a constant stream of data i.e. security footage will also cause bandwidth issues. [5]To avoid bottlenecking for users on the same network the above issues should only be performed when network traffic is low. (Smed, Kaukoranta and Hakonen, 2002) Although t here are ways to try and prevent bandwidth issues, packet aggregations is used to combine many packets being transferred together in to one larger packet in order to reduce the bandwidth requirements. Depending on the size of the data in the original packets, the packet headers size and how many combined packets there are bandwidth savings can be substantial. The number of combined packets can be determined with two different methods timeout-based method and quorum-based method; for timeout-based method before a fixed interval all packets are originated and then become one. An upper bound interval is guaranteed due to the aggregation thanks to this method. The worst thing that can happen with this method is no bandwidth savings are achieved. A certain number of packets are always combined in the quorum method, the number is usually fixed. The transmission delay is not guaranteed because the method is postponed until enough packets have been initiated. The users experience can suffer because of the extended delays in transmission. Both methods have limitations but can each be compensated for when combined (Smed, Kaukoranta and Hakonen, 2002). Internet download speed has always been somewhat of an issue in online gaming where some players can have a slight disadvantage over others, for example Call of Duty 4 selected a Host player at the start of each match if the player had a slow connection all other players were affected except the host thus the term host advantage was given. The graph in appendix [a3] displays the average connection and average peak connection in megabits per second across the globe for 2015. From the data we can gather that Singapore has the highest peak connection speed compared to the United Kingdom is less than half of the peak connection. Singapore may have the highest peak connection but the average connection is dominated by South Korea, their internet connection is years ahead of most of countries some not far behind. Again in 2015 the United Kingdom has almost half the speed of South Korea thus leading us to believe that South Korea is a nation of exceptional gamers thanks to their powerful intent connection. The above graph in appendix [a4] displays the average internet connection for the UK in megabits between March 2013 and March 2016. In those 3 years we can see from the data that the connection speed has more than doubled which gives us an insight that in the next 3 years the average connection speed could double again. MMO Development Discussion and Algorithmic Techniques to Support Scalability There are several things we need to take into account when converting our game to an MMO: Scalability Performance Security The client needs to communicate with the sever using the game protocol to update the status of other clients at the same time within the virtual game environment; things updated include position, health and client name (Yoon and Ng, 2011). First we would need to create a database and link in up to the game sever so that players can register, theres no need for character creation because each client is assigned a character however they could have an avatar name. The name they enter would then need to be checked if it exists within the database using a for each loop to determine if it does then prompt the player to try a new name. Once registered, a player can login in using their credentials i.e. username and password and again that would be checked in the database using a for each loop. An overall translucent text box can be used for chat between players; this could update on the server side and be sent to all clients. A client enders a message sends it to the server and sends it back to all clients. Another thing that could be included is a friends list that would save a players username in a clients friends list only if both clients come to an agreement. We could then introduce an instant message option that would appear in a clients chat box that would be rendered a different colour from normal chat if sent from a friend. See appendix [a5] to see how the game would handle and request information that would be between client and game server. To allow scalability we need to distribute servers onto multiple physical severs, a certain number of gaming severs would be distributed onto physical servers, a gaming server would then handle many more connected players than a physical server, if too many players are on a game server the performance will decrease and render the game unplayable, performance will depend the processing power of the servers and the available bandwidth. [o5] For security we would use encryption, this is so 3rd parties cant view data, both parties are who they say they are i.e. client and server and the data hasnt been modified. We should assume that a user or an attacker can view information that has been sent to the client so the server shouldnt send information that the user should not be able to see i.e. user credentials, client shouldnt really be relied upon for security because an attacker can send pretty much any command they want to a user.[o6] The server should handle pretty much all validation and error checks etc., the client should basically just send a message that they are attacking with a certain item so the sever knows to calculate a certain dps (damage per second). Encryption will not work on someone that uses a bot or deterministic movement to send commands to the server, for example using a seeded random number generator will give the same results over and over again which can be extremely good for grinding a quest or a different seeded number generator for say combat where random attacks are used when they are available. Appendix [a1]Figure was taken from (Armitage, Claypool and Branch, 2006) paper on Networking and Online Games. [a2] Figure was taken from (Armitage, Claypool and Branch, 2006) paper on Networking and Online Games. [a3] Data taken from and entered into an excel spreadsheet to produce the graph [a4] Data taken from (Jackson, 2016) and entered into a spreadsheet to produce the graph [a5] (Yoon and Ng, 2011) References [1]Armitage, G., Claypool, M. and Branch, P., 2006. Networking and online games: understanding and engineering multiplayer Internet games. John Wiley Sons [2] Jackson, M. (2016). Ofcom 2016 Report Average UK Home Broadband Speeds Reach 28.9Mbps ISPreview UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Mar. 2017]. [4] Smed, J., Kaukoranta, T. and Hakonen, H., 2002. A review on networking and multiplayer computer games (pp. 1-5). Turku Centre for Computer Science. [5] (2015). Low Bandwidth Means Slow Network Performance Packetworks. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Mar. 2017]. [6] Ankit. (2012). What are causes of Jitter in gaming and how to find and deal with it. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Mar. 2017]. [7] Yoon, I. and Ng, G., 2011. Developing a MMORPG game in One Semester. In The 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science and Computer Engineering. [o1] [o2] [o3] [o4] [o5] [o6]

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Greek Goddesses Essay -- essays research papers

The Greek Goddesses In Greek mythology the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus played a major role in everyday life. The Greeks respected them and thought of the gods as all mighty. In Ancient Greece the people honored and believe in the deities. Myths, poems, and epics tell the stories and beliefs referring to the gods and goddesses. Many literary works display the power and jobs of the goddesses. The Greek people lived to please the deities in hope of gaining a better lifestyle. The goddesses of Greece acted as an important part of Greek mythology ( Hamilton 28-35 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Historians placed the goddesses into categories. The first category included the major goddesses of Olympus. The goddesses placed in this category were Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Hestia, Demeter, and Artemis because most people knew and worshipped them. The people held these six goddesses the most high and with the most respect ( Hamilton 28 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hera, the goddess of the protection of marriage, took care of married women. The sister and also wife of Zeus, the king of the gods, Hera may be the most well known of the goddesses. The Titans of the Ocean along with the Tethys raised Hera ( Hamilton 28 ). Most people knew Ilithyia , Hera’s daughter, for her help of women through childbirth. Hera held the city of Argos sacred along with the peacock and cow. In Roman mythology, the name of Hera was changed to Juno, queen of goddesses ( Pinset 20 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Artemis, or Diana in Roman mythology, had the role of Leto and Zeus’s daughter and also twin sister of god Apollo. Known as the goddess of wildlife and hunting, Artemis held all animals sacred, but the deer more then any other. Artemis also held the cypress tree sacred. Not many myths feature this goddess, but she lives on through the years in poems and other works ( Hunt 3 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many myths from the Greeks feature Athena, or Minerva as known to the Romans. Myths say that Athena had a very original birth. Some writers have said that Hephaestus took an ax and shaved her from Zeus’s forehead and therefore she has no mother ( Pinset 22 ). Zeus thought of Athena as his favorite child and she had the privilege of using his weapons. First known as the guardian of the city and ... ... they harmed the Earth in any way that Gaea would smite them. This goddess protected the planet and so played an important role in the Greek beliefs ( Hamilton 64 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hebe, the goddess of youth and wife of Hercules, maintained throughout time an image like that of a child. The Greeks thought of her as playful, sweet, kind, and trusting. Along with Ganymede, Hebe acted as a cupbearer to the Gods of Olympus ( Hunt 2 ).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The portrayal of the goddesses in many myths was that of a beautiful and majestic creature which contained many aspects to her personality. These personalities live on today through stories in the forms of poems, myths, and epic tales. Modern movies, art, and literature help to show these creations of the Greeks in powerful along with interesting ways. The goddesses of Ancient Greece impacted Greek culture in such ways that people today know the goddesses in the same aspect the Greeks did. The Greek goddesses of Mount Olympus will forever live in the literature of Greek writers along with writers of today. The importance of the goddesses to the Greeks will remain high for years to come.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Comparing the two poems nothings changed by Tatamkhulu Afrika and still Ill rise by Maya Angelou Essay

My main aim in this essay is to discover how the two poets describe and express their feelings. I will do this by focusing on their use of linguistic techniques and what effect this has given on the reader. Moreover, I will concentrated one how the poets have structured the poem, by carefully analyzing it. Maya Angelou Maya Angelou is one of the most renowned and influential voice of our time. She has many titles such as memoirist, novelist, educator, dramatist, producer, actress, historian, filmmaker, and civil rights activist. She was born on the 4th April 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. At the age of 26 Angelou studied modern dance and poetry; however her studies did not stop there. She traveled to Cairo, Ghana, New York and in this time she had mastered French, Spanish, Italian, Arabic, and Fanti. In 1993 she composed a poem at Bill Clinton’s inauguration; it was watched live on air all around the world. Stanza 1 â€Å"You may write me down in history, with your bitter twisted lies you may trod me in very dirt but still like dust ill rise† in his opening verse of the poem, the reader automatically senses Maya’s attitude towards the reader and I felt as though she was spearing the reader with these words by saying â€Å"your bitter† by doing this I thought that if made the reader feel as though they had done all this to Maya, therefore it made the reader feel emotional. Maya Angelo wrote at the start of her poem â€Å"Your bitter twisted lies† in this quotation Angelou is presenting her feelings by harshly saying that you can do whatever you want with you bitter twisted lies. The word â€Å"twisted† shows the reader how untrue these lies are and how hurtful, and unpleasant, these lies are to her. Just like when you take a piece of paper and you twist it, the creases are impossible to take out. Then she says the word â€Å"bitter† this shows the reader how distressful this is to her and shows the reader that it really hurts her. â€Å"Trod me in very dirt† by saying this she explains her self and says that, you can do whatever you want but it doesn’t bother me, still ill get there. She shows that she is full of firmness and determination and nothing will stop her. Then at the end of the Stanza off she writes â€Å"but still like dust ill rise† by writing this she shows the reader how confident she is. We can prove this because Angelou has used a simile â€Å"like dust† by writing this she means that just like dust rises in the air and you cannot see it rising, in the same way will she rise. Stanza 2 â€Å"Does my sassiness upset you, why are you beset with gloom, cause I walk like I’ve got oil wells pumping in my living room† Maya is questioning the reader and I thought that this was a really effective way to get the readers attention, she says, just because I’m passionate and lively is that upsetting you, why are you jealous of me? I thought that Maya purposely wrote this because she wanted to show the reader how unfair it is and how cruel it is that a person can’t be themselves. Then Maya writes â€Å"cause I walk like I’ve got oil wells pumping in my living room† I thought that this was a really effective and important line in Angelou’s poem. I thought that Maya used a powerful metaphor â€Å"oil wells pumping in my living room† I thought that the word oil stood for something significant. If a person has an oil well they maybe very rich and the fact that she has used this, shows that she has something special inside her, Maya is showing her determination because just like if you have oil a person can be very powerful in the same way Maya is saying no one will be able to stop her because she has something special which is determination and courage. Now I will start by analyzing the 3rd stanza â€Å"Just like the suns and moons with the certainty of tides, just like hopes spring high still ill rise† In this stanza Angelo shows her desperation and desire to achieve this goal, which is to end discrimination. Moreover, Angelou refers to the sun, moon and tides to represent her nature. She says that just like the certainty that the sun will rise in the east and set in the west and the moon will appear in the night and tides will wash in and out of seashores in the same way she will achieve this goal. Moreover from my judgment I think that Maya inspires the reader by saying â€Å"with the certainty of tides hopes spring high† she is influencing the reader by saying that your hope will always rise and that it is natural in a persons life just like the tides coming in and out are natural and the sun rise and set is natural. â€Å"Did you want to see me broken bowed head lowered eyes, shoulders falling like teardrops, weakened by my soulful cries† It thought that this stanza was on of the most effective; this was because Maya really expressed her feelings and showed her true inner self. Unlike the other stanza’s I realized that Maya Angelou never wrote â€Å"I’ll rise† at the end of the sentence. This was because she wanted to show the reader how much pain and distress discrimination has caused inside her. I think what made this stanza very special was the fact that, for the first time Maya showed her downside, and by doing this she told the reader that the pain inside her that discrimination has caused is something that will stay their forever inside her, and unfortunately she can not rise above that pain. I thought that this made the stanza very emotional because this was something that Maya Angelou could not rise above. Stanza 4 In this stanza I felt as though Maya was showing her identity and who she is. â€Å"Does my haughtiness offend you, don’t you take it awful hard† what she meant by this was that just because I feel I’m higher than every one else and I’m proud of myself, is that offending you, the reason why I thought this was because Maya wrote â€Å"cause I laugh like I’ve got gold mines digging in my own backyard† and the word â€Å"laugh† proves this because it shows that she is happy. I thought that this was a really powerful stanza because Maya, put across the message that, these people are so arrogant and jealous that just because she is proud to be who she is and she’s proud that she’s black, these people hate it (don’t you take it awful hard) what she means by awful hard is that if a white person was proud of his or her self and was proud to be white would we hate it? No so why can’t she be herself? Stanza 5 â€Å"You may shoot me with your words, you may cut me with your eyes, you may kill me with your hatefulness but still like air ill rise† in this stanza I felt that Maya made the reader feel guilty, this was because she was putting the blame on the person who was reading by saying â€Å"you may†. I thought that this was a really effective way of attracting attention; What Maya Angelou meant when she said â€Å"you may shoot me with your words, you may cut me with your eyes, you may kill me with your hatefulness† is that you can do whatever you like, whether its your lies â€Å"shoot me with your words†, you can have all the jealousy inside you â€Å"cut me with your eyes†, have all the hatred inside you â€Å"kill me with your hatefulness†, but none of these things will ever stop me â€Å"but still like air I’ll rise†, she is saying that its never going to stop me so its pointless. On the other hand, we know that these things hurt her inside because she says â€Å"but still like air I’ll rise†. My opinion of this was that, she meant that just like you can contaminate air, but you can never stop it from being there. In the same way she is portraying that, all the lies that have been said about her, and all the hatred, it does hurt her but it will never stop her from reaching this goal that sh e has always wanted. â€Å"I’ll rise†. Stanza 6 â€Å"Does my sexiness upset you, does it come as a surprise† what Maya was trying to portray is because she is sexy and she is black, it comes as a surprise to them to see that a black person stands out, and a black person to stand up for herself, what she is trying to say, is that it upsets them and they are irritated to see this. I thought that this really showed the character of these white people and the difference it made if you were black or white on how you were treated. Moreover, once again Maya Angelou directed this at the reader by saying â€Å"you† and this made the reader feel as though they were one of these white people. Then when I was analyzing this, I thought that they were many different ways of interpreting the word â€Å"sexiness†. My interpretation was that Maya wrote this because she was speaking on behalf of the black people in the world and not just herself and what this meant was that she was saying that all blacks are â€Å"naturally attractive† in other words they, have something naturally special inside them, and in order to unveil it, they need to stand up and rise and be themselves. Maya is saying to all black people that stand up for yourself and you will be the winner in the end just like she is a winner. My proof of this is, that at the end the poem Maya wrote â€Å"I rise† instead of â€Å"I’ll rise† this showed the reader that just like she has said she â€Å"will rise† but know she has risen â€Å"I rise† and also Angelou wrote â€Å"that I dance like I’ve got diamonds at the meeting of my thighs† this showed the reader that know she has got something to really boast about. To add to that I thought that Maya was a real inspiration to the bl ack community. My second interpretation of this stanza was that Maya wrote this because she was unique, and she was an icon to other black people, and this was very unusual to see in a black person to stand up and become a leader, and my proof of this is she wrote â€Å"does it come as a surprise† Stanza 7 â€Å"Out of the huts of histories shame, I rise† here Maya Angelou talks about that out of all what has happened in history she has risen above. Another explanation was that by saying â€Å"histories shame† she meant that what a humiliation and an embarrassment it is to all of mankind for humans to fight one another and for discrimination to even take place. Then she writes â€Å"I rise† by writing this she is saying that, whatever has happened in history she has know risen above. One thing that I had noticed was that at the start of the poem and through the middle Maya wrote â€Å"I’ll rise† and toward the end it was â€Å"I rise† I thought that this stud as a symbol and had a meaning. My interpretation was that Maya had written this because she was showing that after all the hard work and hard times she has fought through, finally she has got were she has always wanted. Stanza 8 â€Å"Up from a past that’s rooted in pain I rise† This showed the reader how much pain she has been thorough and not only her but her family and her generations. We know this because she writes the word â€Å"rooted†. The word rooted has a significant effect because just like the roots of a tree keep growing and have different braches. In the same way pain has passed through her generations and know finally she is the one to stand up and stop this â€Å"I rise†. Stanza 9 â€Å"I am a black ocean, leaping and wide, welling and swelling I bear In the tide, leaving behind nights of terror and fear behind† I thought that this was a powerful stanza because Maya was rendering an image to the reader of her courage and power, and also inner strength. By saying that she is a ocean, first of all she uses a metaphor and I thought that increased the effect and secondly if you are and ocean then how can anyone escape you and she is showing that if anyone wants to fight then they will never be able to escape. My analysis was that she was an ocean carrying fish and plants (people), and without that ocean these fish and plants would suffer, in the same way the black people would suffer from discrimination. To add to this I thought that she is saying that know she has a responsibility to carry these people and to protect them, in a away she is expressing that this gift she has been given has know been unveiled, and she is know were she has always wanted to be, she has power and know one can stop her, in the same way know one can eradicate an ocean. The fact that she is saying that she is leaping far and wide shows us that she is still fighting for freedom and know for all the black people in the world. Stanza 11 â€Å"into a daybreak that’s wondrously clear I rise† here Maya emphasizes the point that know that she has this power, ahead of her lies a future that is so clear and exciting. Stanza 12 â€Å"bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave I rise† Maya Angelou used a metaphor â€Å"gifts† which really made me think about what I was reading, by saying this it made the line emotive. She is saying that for years this gift has been passing on, and yet know one has been successful enough to unveil it and to use it, and know that person is her. The metaphor â€Å"gifts† represents that the rising above discrimination and putting a stop to it and now she has done this and we can prove this because she writes â€Å"I rise†. Stanza 13 The very last few lines of the poem was † I am the dream and hope of the slave, I rise, I rise, I rise† I thought that Maya really summarized the whole poem by saying this because after all her goal was for blacks to have rights, for blacks to have their freedom, for blacks to unveil they’re gifts that they all have, and for them to live up to high expectations, and by saying â€Å"I rise, I rise, I rise† shows that she has done this and succeeded and know she has changed the life of all black people In the world. I realized that towards the end of the poem instead of using anger to convey the message instead Maya used emotion, and hope, and by doing this it really made the reader believe that whatever happens in the world Maya will always rise above it. Now I am going to give a brief summary on the life of Tatamkhulu Afrika. Born in 1920, Afrika was born and bought up in Cape Town, South Africa; he had an Arab father and a Turkish mother. In Africa people were classed according to the color of their skin, However Afrika turned down the chance to be classed as white as he chose to become Muslim which in that time was categorized as colored. Later on in his years he joined the African national congress and but 3 years he was arrested for terrorism and was banned writing or speaking in public for 5 years. He died shortly after his 82nd birthday; he was run over by a bus just 2 weeks after the publication of his final novel â€Å"bitter Eden† he left a number of unpublished works, poems, plays, and novels. I will start now by analyzing the first stanza. In the first few lines of the first stanza, he renders an image of district six and mentions some of its characteristics here I will give a few examples, â€Å"Small round hard stones click under my heels. In the first quotation he talks about that in district six, the governments haven’t taken much care to build roads, and this leads me to think, that it would be very rare to see any modern means of transport. Then it follows on â€Å"seeding grasses thrust bearded seeds into trouser cuffs† he explains that, no one is bothered to cut the wheat and when you walk the wheat is in your trouser cuffs. Moreover, I thought that these two words â€Å"thrust† and â€Å"bearded† gave an unwelcoming feel to the reader. â€Å"cans trodden on† This gives the reader a feel that district six is a place where no body cares, no body can be bothered to throw their litter in the bin its just dumped on the floor. Tatamkhulu rounds the first stanza off by saying â€Å"crunch in tall, purple flowering, amiable weeds† after talking about the uncut wheat and the litter on the floor, he then says that even though district six has all these problems he is used to this he sees them as friendly, and a part of him. The second stanza starts with the poet writing â€Å"District six, no board says it is, but my feet know, and my hands, and the skin about my bones, and the soft laboring of my lungs† To increase tension Afrika has used repetition, by starting the verse of by â€Å"and† three times. He demonstrates that even though there are no signs that say its district six, inside him he know it is, if you look in more detail at the quotation you realize that the poet is conveying the message that he has already been here â€Å"my feet† and â€Å"my hands† and â€Å"laboring of my lungs† by saying that his feet know and his hands it proves that he has been here before because his feet remember the â€Å"clicking stones under his heels† and his lungs remember the polluted atmosphere that was caused by litter â€Å"cans trodden on†. In the next two lines of the poem Afrika has used anger to express his feelings. â€Å"And the hot, white, inward turning anger of my eyes† by writing white with two commas on either side, from my experience by doing this the reader focuses more on this word â€Å"white† Afrika has deliberately done this to increase the tension and to make the reader think just how angry he is. Just like when you heat coal up, and it reaches its hottest, it turns white. Now I will start by analyzing the third stanza â€Å"Brash with glass, name flaring like a flag it squats, in the grass and weeds† In this quotation, Tatamkhulu Afrika first describes the appearance of the building he says the word brash, this means to stand out too much and be energetic and boastful. Then it says â€Å"name flaring like a flag it squats, in the grass and weeds† this explains to the reader that this building and the name of it just sits there( squats), it doesn’t belong their and doesn’t fit in with the visual surrounding in this case the â€Å"grass† and â€Å"weeds† that surround the building. Afrika has used two powerful describing verbs â€Å"brash† and â€Å"squats† this significantly increases the tension and makes the line dramatic. In these next few lines that I am going to analyze, the poet describes his negative experiences. â€Å"Incipient port Jackson trees, new up market haute cuisine Guard at the gate post white’s only inn† incipient port Jackson trees where shipped to Africa from America in the late 1970 when the district six was being colonized by whites. His negative experiences comes from the fact that there is a new market and a haute cuisine, however, there is a guard at the gate post making sure no black person comes in, â€Å"whites only inn† Afrika feels that blacks are being dejected in their own land. Fourth stanza â€Å"No sign says it is but we know were we belong† What is Afrika’s attitude towards whites? Afrika does not express his feeling through anger he expresses them through sarcasm we can prove this because he writes â€Å"we know were we belong† he is referring to the black people, saying that the whites have their cuisine and new markets but we know were we belong. Moreover, Afrika deliberately uses a small stanza, this gives it exceptional flair which increases the tension of this stanza and attracts the reader attention. In this next stanza I will be studying in depth and showing Tatamkhulu negative experiences. His negative experience is the fact that there is that there is still segregation between whites and blacks and nothing has changed, no one has cared to do anything about it he feels that black are being dejected. We know this because he writes â€Å"I press my nose to clear the panes, know, before I see them, there will be crushed ice white glass, linen falls, the single rose† Afrika is trying to get the message that the white people are treated well, with luxury and comfort â€Å"linen falls, the single rose† but then in the next verse he compares this to how blacks are treated â€Å"working mans cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ sells bunny chows. Take it with you, eat it at a plastic tables top, wipe your fingers on your jeans spit a little on the floor: it’s in the bone†. Afrika uses a juxtaposition I thought that this was a really clever technique because it showed the reader how vulgar and old fashioned the black mans cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ was. Here he talks about that if you go into a white man s cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ they have tissues at the table top and crushed ice in a white glass. However if you walk into a black mans cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ then you eat on a plastic table top, wiping your hands on your jeans. The poet purposely compares the linen falls and the plastic table because this gives the reader a feel that just because of the color of their skin they get treated differently. In these next few pages I will be analyzing the similarities in the style, use of linguistic techniques, and the structure and layout of the poem. Tatamkhulu and Maya both have a lot of similarities regarding their background and childhood. I think their writing represents their childhood and how they have been treated and the terrible times they have been through. Because of this it make an enormous impact on the reader, now I will give an example. Maya writes â€Å"a past that’s rooted in main† this is a very emotive line and represents Mayas background, she tells us that all these years she has been through this torment and her background proves this. The word â€Å"root† shows that it’s not only her who has been tormented, but it’s her ancestors as well that have been through slavery and injustice. Just like the roots of a tree have different channels and can be very long, however they all do the same job. Then Tatamkhulu also shows this, but he does this in a slightly different but clever way and I did not see Maya use this in her poem, but if she did I think her poem would have been much more effective. He writes â€Å"no board says it is but we know were we belong† by saying the word â€Å"we† he is referring to the blacks and saying that even though there isn’t any board we know were we are going. He uses sarcasm to get his point threw to the reader, and I think that it’s a really effective way. Another linguistic technique that I saw was repetition, which was used by both writers in an exceptional way to get through to the point. I noticed that Maya repeated the same word â€Å"ill rise† after the end of every stanza. I think that this had a big influence on each stanza because the reader pays more attention to the words that have been repeated, therefore taking into consideration the meanings of the word being repeated. In this case Maya was portraying the message that what ever they do whether it’s their bitter lies or the discrimination; she will always rise above this, whatever happens and by repeating this at end of every stanza just shows how much courage, enthusiasm, and determination Maya Angelou has got. Repetition was also used by Tatamkhulu Afrika, however he used this in a slightly different style, and however I don’t think that it was as effective as Angelou’s, this was because it wasn’t repeated enough times for the reader to truly believe that he was fully committed to end the segregation between whites and blacks. The title of the poem was â€Å"nothings changed† and Tatamkhulu repeated this at the end, this showed the reader how frustrated he was the see that nothing could be done about the segregation between whites and blacks and that nothing had been done. By repeating this it did not only increase the effect it had on the stanza, but showed and represented the poet’s feelings. Tatamkhulu ended his poem in more of an emotional way whereas Maya ended her poem in more of a forgiving and confident way. I will be looking at the style of the poem and the way they have used anger to portray the message and their similarities. I think that because the 2 poets used of anger this it had an immense impact at the reader because it made you think twice about what you were reading. I thought that both poets did this exceptionally well. In the poem nothings changed, Tatamkhulu Afrika showed his anger to represent his feelings he did this on many occasions, I will just analyze a few of these. Afrika writes in his poem â€Å"the hot, white, inward turning anger of my eyes† I thought this was an outstanding line which really did show the poets feelings. The word white really showed the reader how angry Afrika actually was, just like when you heat something up as it gets hotter the color starts to change and when it’s at its hottest then it turns white, I thought this was a really effective line which really engrossed the reader. One other example was when Tatamkhulu wrote â€Å"hands burn for a stone, a bomb, to shiver down the glass† here he is also conveying the message through anger and saying that his â€Å"hands burn for a stone† by this he means that inside him there is this precipitation to break the barrier between whites and blacks â€Å"to shiver down the glass† and the fact that he writes â€Å"hands burn† shows the longing he has inside him break up this segregation between whites and blacks and his desperation. Maya also used the same technique to convey her message, she writes â€Å"you may write me down in history with your bitter twisted lies, you may trod me in very dirt but still like dust I’ll rise†. She uses harsh words â€Å"bitter† â€Å"twisted† ,however Maya uses the same method but using a different style, she is pin pointing the reader. It seems as though she is blaming the reader, I thought this was a very good method of getting the point across because this made the reader guilty. More over, I think that if Afrika had used the same method his poem would have been more effective. Similarities in structure use From my opinion the structure of the stanza was really important because it increased the effect, which in return had a significant effect on the poem, here I will give a few examples: Tatamkhulu Afrika used this technique a lot in his poem. In the 7th stanza of his poem Afrika purposely wrote a very small stanza, â€Å"No board says it is, but we know were we belong† I thought that this stanza had exceptional flair, it really caught my attention, Afrika deliberately did this because first of all it increases tension and he wanted people to know just how they are being treated and how difficult it is for them to live excluded from other parts of the town. The word white has to commas on either side this is because he wants us to pay more attention to that word white. Then again Afrika used the same style again â€Å"and the hot, white, inward turning anger of my eyes† Afrika is showing us his anger. The word white has to commas on either side this is because he wants us to pay more attention to that word white. Now I will give another example in still ill rise. I thought Maya Angelou structured her poem exceptionally well. After every other stanza Maya wrote I’ll rise, I’ll rise; I’ll rise on separate lines. From my opinion I thought that by doing this it made the reader one hundred percent sure that Maya was absolutely committed, and it showed how desperate she is and how much courage she has, and how much commitment. Differences One language technique that I thought was brilliant was the fact that Tatamkhulu could show and describe the contrasts in the way blacks and whites were treated. I thought that this had an immense effect because it made the line emotional. One example of this was â€Å"I press my nose to clear the panes, know before I see them there will be crushed ice white glass, linen falls, the single rose† he shows the luxury and the quality that whites have been given, and the contrasts this with â€Å"down the road working mans cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ sells bunny chows, take it with you, eat it at a plastic tables top, wipe your fingers on your jeans, spit a little on the floor: its in the bone† he shows the difference in luxury between a white and blacks cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ and because he did this I thought that it was very effective and created emotion and made the reader feel sorry for blacks. On the other hand I thought that if Maya did this her poem would have been a little more effecti ve. One more thing that I spotted was that both writers ended their poem differently. These surprised me because they were both black and were fighting the same problem. Maya Angelou ended her poem with â€Å"I am the dream and hope of the slave, I rise, I rise, I rise† she showed a sense of achievement and hope, because by saying â€Å"I rise† three times showed the reader that she has her accomplished her mission of rising and ending above discrimination. On the other hand Tatamkhulu ended his in anger and irritation by saying â€Å"hands burn for a stone, a bomb to shiver down the glass, nothings changed†. Here he showed anger however their was a sense of hope, but by writing this, it told the reader that their was still discrimination between whites and blacks, But this made the reader feel emotional whereas Maya’s was more a feel of accomplishment. To summarize, I thought that the two poems where exceptional, however, I enjoyed Maya Angelou’s most. This was because she blamed the reader and by doing this it made the reader feel emotional. Although â€Å"nothing’s changed† was exceptional I still thought that Maya’s was slightly better.