Thursday, January 30, 2020

Exploring How State of Matter Affects the Rate of Diffusion Essay Example for Free

Exploring How State of Matter Affects the Rate of Diffusion Essay Introduction Diffusion is the random process by which particles distribute themselves within a container or medium. There are two factors that distinguish how substances move passively through membranes. The first factor is hydrophobic , a nonpolar molecule that can dissolve in a lipid bilayer and freely move through the membrane. However a hydrophillic molecule consisting of ions and polar molecules inhibit in their movement through the membrane making it a slower diffusion process. Selectively permeable, moreover, are charged atoms and molecules that are mostly blocked from traveling through the membrane due to the hydrophobic center. The purpose of this experiment was to test how the state of matter affects the rate of diffusion in a semi-solid vs. a liquid state. If the Potassium Permanganate crystals are placed in Petri dishes filled with water and 2% agar, then the crystals will diffuse at a faster rate in water than in the agar. The addition of the Potassium Permanganate crystals to the water and agar, there will be a result of more diffusion and more obvious color change in water compared to agar which will result in a slower less obvious diffusion. Materials The materials needed for this experiment are: One Petri dish with 2% agar and one Petri dish of water filled half way up to test the rate of diffusion. Also, two small crystals of potassium permanganate and one pair of forceps will be needed to place in the Petri dishes. One metric ruler will be need as well to measure the change of color in diameter and one 8 x 11 piece of white paper will also be used for safety precautions. Methods First, a member of the group will gather all the materials including the Petri dishes filled with tap water and 2% agar, forceps, ruler, 8X11 piece of white paper and the jar that contains the potassium permanganate crystals, and bring the materials back to the designated area. Then the experimenter will start to conduct the experiment. Then the experiment will consist of placing the empty Petri dish and the agar Petri dish on top of the white paper side by side. Second, Tap water will be added to a half way point in the empty Petri dish until it is approximately the same level as agar in the other Petri dish. Before continuing, wait for the water to stop moving to get an accurate measure of the diffusion. After that, have lab partner assist with placing potassium permanganate crystals into the agar Petri dish, while at the same time, the primary experimenter places the other two potassium permanganate crystals into the tap water. Be sure not to splash water in the aqueous dish. The moment that each crystal has been lowered is Time Zero. A purple color will be obvious immediately. Next have the experiment observe the diffusion rate for every 3 minutes for the next 15 minutes. For every 3 minutes, measure the diameter of the diffusion circle in millimeters (mm) and write down the measurement on the chart given. Be careful not to disturb the aqueous Petri dish. Discussion The results show that there a major difference in the rate of diffusion between 2% agar and tap water. Immediately, when the potassium permanganate crystals were dropped at 0, there was already an instant diffusion of 2 mm, compared to agar which was 1mm. Because water is a polar molecule, diffusion across membranes travel quicker compared to a nonpolar substance like agar that diffuse though the lipid part of a membrane. At the first 3 minute mark, it shows that the crystals have diffused relatively fast at 15 mm, compared to the diameter in agar which has slowly diffused to 5 mm. for the next 12 minutes, results have show that the diameter in water has increase about 8 10 mm every 3 minutes and agar has stayed the same throughout. Due to passive transport, the movement of molecules from the potassium permanganate have a higher concentration, and are then added to water which diffuses from that high concentration to a lower concentration. This was the expected result. Since water is polar, the crystals can easily diffuse through the gradient. Furthermore, with agar being a nonpolar molecule, it maintained a state of dynamic equilibrium because it diffused slower but was diffused evenly. However since other factors do play a role in the rate of diffusion, maybe temperature could have changed the rate of diffusion for the two Petri dishes. Also had the allotted time been different there may have also been a change in the results. There were no negative results or errors made during this experiment. Based on the results it can be concluded that dropping potassium permanganate crystals into water, diffuses across the gradient faster compared to 2% agar. This does support the initial hypothesis and the predictions were accurate.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay --

The museum that Daniel Libeskind created through his superb creativity is a direct mirror image of the persistent and consistent presence of Jewish history in the past, present and in the far future. The metaphorical obstacle that the project created was to become a representative of the Jewish struggle and their urge for rescue during the Holocaust, in which Daniel Libeskind defines the experiences in 3 different categories; Continuity, exile and death. The physical procedure that the organization had to overcome were both very solidly influenced by the post modern era, in which they considered as ‘esthetic’ of which included both classical and modern design with the use of zinc faà §ade but deigned in such a classical way that it still highlights its purpose for its presence in Berlin. Furthermore the buildings remarkable connection and message speaks for more than a modern presence-with respect to the social fabric of the city than earlier architectural designs. The Jewish Museum in Berlin, opened to the world in 2001. This museum revolutionizes the social, radical and ethnic history of the Jews in Germany from the 19th century to the present day. The museum especially presents and mixes for the first time, the war in Germany, and the consequences of the Holocaust that the Jews were forced to be in. The new design that Daniel Libeskind came up with, which was created a year before the Berlin Wall was abolished was based on three formats that underpin the museum’s foundation: firstly, the impossibility of understanding the history of Berlin without understanding the enormous logical, economic, ethnic participation made by the Jewish nations. 2nd, the responsibility to integrate the physical and emotional in depth by meaning o... ... is a daring and reserved one. By using ‘fragmentation, separation, non-rectilinear and non-vertical walls’ Ignites the suitable emotion that the museum is trying to receive, both joyful and somber. The building creates the response for one of the worlds most atrocious tragedies which makes the people who visit the building reconsider the purpose of the museum making it much more than a funky design that is trying to get people to visit just for its appearance. Perhaps, Libeskind said it the best,â€Å"The task of building a Jewish Museum in Berlin demands more than a mere functional response to the program for the people. Such a task in all its ethical depth requires the incorporation of the void of Berlin back into itself, in order to disclose how the past continues to affect the present and to reveal how a hopeful horizon can be opened through the aporias of time.’’

Monday, January 13, 2020

Animal Testing Is Morally Wrong

Testing on Animals is Morally Wrong In today’s world, large corporations seem to have decided that animal testing is an acceptable way to produce products that are safe for human use at the expense of innocent animals everywhere. Sadly, with large-scale corporations focused far more on money and profit than on the wellbeing of, safety and health of animals of all kinds. The Government has completed hundreds of tests through out the years, and there has been very dismal proof that conducting the animal testing is benefit to humans, even though morally it is unspeakably wrong.To better understand how humans started using animals to conduct product testing, it is important to look back into our history. In the past, animals were thought of as food and years later, we needed animals such as cattle and horses as a means of transportation by land and to help lighten the human workload. Years later it became possible to keep animals as pets and sources of entertainment. Now we have a nimals as companions and are thought of as members of our families: they are valuable and loved by many.Sadly, although the general population would never want to harm an animal, the corporate machine that functions all around the world runs on earning money based on the exploitation of people and animals. This goes against our current general outlook on the value of animal’s lives yet to mega corporations, these creatures have no legal voice or overpowering representation to save them from torture, abuse and death during product testing. There are two different kinds of animal testing. The first is animal experimentation, in which the laboratory animal may only have a minute or so of pain and discomfort.The second is called vivisection, which is the most inhumane form of animal testing. Vivisection is when an animal is tested on while not under any form of anesthesia to keep the animal from feeling pain. This form of testing is conducted when the animal is awake and feeling an incredible amount of pain. Both of these forms of animal testing are inhumane because even during the less horrific of the two testing processes, animals can sustain critical issues that come from the testing long after the tests are completed and the anesthesia has warn off.Although animals cannot speak for themselves, they desperately need human legal representation to act on their behalf as far as texting human products on animals that can threaten their wellbeing and lives. Due to the horrific animal abuses that happen in the US and abroad there are understandably many outraged animal rights activists that are involved organizations that work to stop animal testing. Since animals are obviously very different that humans it does morally makes sense to test products that are meant for human use and consumption.This can really hurt an animal and cause a lifetime of harm that we humans will never fully understand. There are many dangers to humans that are associated with animal t esting as well. If a product or drug is tested on animals with no known side effects that product can then be sold for human use but because animals and humans are so different a new drug coming straight from animal testing will undoubtedly have a slightly different effect on the human than on the animal and sometimes the effect is very serious.If illness or death occurs then tax dollars that Americans pay to companies that use animal testing for new drugs will be wasted on a product that undoubtedly harmed animals and also humans. At the same time, animals that react poorly to testing can cause medicine or other products that could benefit humans from being distributed simply because humans and animals will react differently to different things. There are many companies that have decided to stand up for animals and test many products on humans instead of abusing animals during the testing process.This is particularly common when testing makeup; skincare products and hair care produ cts. Companies that use natural ingredients especially, feel that they can safely test their products on humans. An entire market has been built upon the choice not to test on animals and people who care about animals will pay much more for products that were not tested on animals. It is my hope that more corporations especially will take a stand for animals and realize that their actions deeply harm animals and that money is ess important then the life of an animal. Research has proven that what works for them, does not necessarily work for us. I believe that it is a waste of American taxes to continue testing animals. Animals are a major part of our world and deserve more respect and care then they are currently given. It is my hope that we can stop cruel testing on animals and find new ways to test medicines and products that do not destroy the lives of animals.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Quotes from Idi Amin Dada, A President of Uganda

Idi Amin was the president of Uganda between 25 Jan 1971 to 13 April 1979, and he is widely considered one of the most brutal leaders in the history of the world. He is estimated to have tortured, killed, or imprisoned somewhere between 100,000 and 500,000 of his opponents. According to a  Sunday Times of 27 July 2003 entitled A Clown Drenched in Brutality, Amin gave himself several titles throughout his reign, including His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji, Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular. The Idi Amin quotes listed below were taken from books, newspapers, and magazines reporting on his speeches, interviews, and telegrams to other state officials. 1971–1974 I am not a politician but a professional soldier. I am, therefore, a man of few words and I have been brief through my professional career.Idi Amin, president of Uganda, from his first speech to the Ugandan nation in January 1971. Germany is the place where when Hitler was the prime minister and supreme commander, he burned over six million Jews. This is because Hitler and all German people knew that Israelis are not people who are working in the interest of the world and that is why they burned the Israelis alive with gas in the soil of Germany.Idi Amin, president of Uganda, part of a telegram sent to Kurt Waldheim, UN Secretary-General, and Golda Meir, Israeli premier, on 12 Sept 1972. I am the hero of Africa.Idi Amin, president of Uganda, as quoted in Newsweek 12 March 1973. While wishing you a speedy recovery from the Watergate affair, may I, Excellency, assure you of my highest respect and regard.President Idi Amin of Uganda, message to U.S. President Richard M. Nixon, on July 4, 1973, as reported in The New York Times, 6 July 1973. 1975–1979 Sometimes people mistake the way I talk for what I am thinking. I never had any formal education—not even nursery school certificate. But, sometimes I know more than Ph.D.s because as a military man I know how to act, I am a man of action.Idi Amin as quoted in Thomas and Margaret Meladys Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa, Kansas City, 1977. I do not want to be controlled by any superpower. I myself consider myself the most powerful figure in the world, and that is why I do not let any superpower control me.Idi Amin, president of Uganda, as quoted in Thomas and Margaret Meladys Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa, Kansas City, 1977. Like the Prophet Mohammed, who sacrificed his life and his property for the good of Islam, I am ready to die for my country.From Radio Uganda and attributed to Idi Amin in 1979, as reported in Amin, Living by the Gun, Under the Gun,   The New York Times, 25 March 1979.